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P.L. 105-185

Cite as "AILA InfoNet Doc. No. 98062359 (posted Jun. 23, 1998)"


--S.1150--

S.1150

One Hundred Fifth Congress

of the

United States of America

AT THE SECOND SESSION

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Tuesday,

the twenty-seventh day of January, one thousand nine hundred and ninety-eight

An Act

To ensure that federally funded agricultural research, extension, and education address high-priority concerns with national or multistate significance, to reform, extend, and eliminate certain agricultural research programs, and for other purposes.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

    (a) SHORT TITLE- This Act may be cited as the `Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998'.

    (b) TABLE OF CONTENTS- The table of contents of this Act is as follows:

      Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.

      Sec. 2. Definitions.

      Sec. 3. Short titles for Smith-Lever Act and Hatch Act of 1887.

TITLE I--PRIORITIES, SCOPE, REVIEW, AND COORDINATION OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND EDUCATION

      Sec. 101. Standards for Federal funding of agricultural research, extension, and education.

      Sec. 102. Priority setting process.

      Sec. 103. Relevance and merit of agricultural research, extension, and education funded by the Department.

      Sec. 104. Research formula funds for 1862 Institutions.

      Sec. 105. Extension formula funds for 1862 Institutions.

      Sec. 106. Research facilities.

TITLE II--REFORM OF EXISTING AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND EDUCATION AUTHORITIES

Subtitle A--Smith-Lever Act and Hatch Act of 1887

      Sec. 201. Cooperative agricultural extension work by 1862, 1890, and 1994 Institutions.

      Sec. 202. Plans of work to address critical research and extension issues and use of protocols to measure success of plans.

      Sec. 203. Consistent matching funds requirements under Hatch Act of 1887 and Smith-Lever Act.

      Sec. 204. Integration of research and extension.

Subtitle B--Competitive, Special, and Facilities Research Grant Act

      Sec. 211. Competitive grants.

      Sec. 212. Special grants.

Subtitle C--National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977

      Sec. 221. Definitions regarding agricultural research, extension, and education.

      Sec. 222. Advisory Board.

      Sec. 223. Grants and fellowships for food and agricultural sciences education.

      Sec. 224. Policy research centers.

      Sec. 225. Plans of work for 1890 Institutions to address critical research and extension issues and use of protocols to measure success of plans.

      Sec. 226. Matching funds requirement for research and extension activities at 1890 Institutions.

      Sec. 227. International research, extension, and teaching.

      Sec. 228. United States-Mexico joint agricultural research.

      Sec. 229. Competitive grants for international agricultural science and education programs.

      Sec. 230. General administrative costs.

      Sec. 231. Expansion of authority to enter into cost-reimbursable agreements.

Subtitle D--Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990

      Sec. 241. Agricultural Genome Initiative.

      Sec. 242. High-priority research and extension initiatives.

      Sec. 243. Nutrient management research and extension initiative.

      Sec. 244. Organic agriculture research and extension initiative.

      Sec. 245. Agricultural telecommunications program.

      Sec. 246. Assistive technology program for farmers with disabilities.

Subtitle E--Other Laws

      Sec. 251. Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994.

      Sec. 252. Fund for Rural America.

      Sec. 253. Forest and rangeland renewable resources research.

TITLE III--EXTENSION OR REPEAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND EDUCATION AUTHORITIES

      Sec. 301. Extensions.

      Sec. 302. Repeals.

TITLE IV--NEW AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND EDUCATION INITIATIVES

      Sec. 401. Initiative for Future Agriculture and Food Systems.

      Sec. 402. Partnerships for high-value agricultural product quality research.

      Sec. 403. Precision agriculture.

      Sec. 404. Biobased products.

      Sec. 405. Thomas Jefferson Initiative for Crop Diversification.

      Sec. 406. Integrated research, education, and extension competitive grants program.

      Sec. 407. Coordinated program of research, extension, and education to improve viability of small and medium size dairy, livestock, and poultry operations.

      Sec. 408. Support for research regarding diseases of wheat and barley caused by Fusarium graminearum.

TITLE V--AGRICULTURAL PROGRAM ADJUSTMENTS

Subtitle A--Food Stamp Program

      Sec. 501. Reductions in funding of employment and training programs.

      Sec. 502. Reductions in payments for administrative costs.

      Sec. 503. Extension of eligibility period for refugees and certain other qualified aliens from 5 to 7 years.

      Sec. 504. Food stamp eligibility for certain disabled aliens.

      Sec. 505. Food stamp eligibility for certain Indians.

      Sec. 506. Food stamp eligibility for certain elderly individuals.

      Sec. 507. Food stamp eligibility for certain children.

      Sec. 508. Food stamp eligibility for certain Hmong and Highland Laotians.

      Sec. 509. Conforming amendments.

      Sec. 510. Effective dates.

Subtitle B--Information Technology Funding

      Sec. 521. Information technology funding.

Subtitle C--Crop Insurance

      Sec. 531. Funding.

      Sec. 532. Budgetary offsets.

      Sec. 533. Procedures for responding to certain inquiries.

      Sec. 534. Time period for responding to submission of new policies.

      Sec. 535. Crop insurance study.

      Sec. 536. Required terms and conditions of Standard Reinsurance Agreements.

      Sec. 537. Effective date.

TITLE VI--MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

Subtitle A--Existing Authorities

      Sec. 601. Retention and use of fees.

      Sec. 602. Office of Energy Policy and New Uses.

      Sec. 603. Kiwifruit research, promotion, and consumer information program.

      Sec. 604. Food Animal Residue Avoidance Database program.

      Sec. 605. Honey research, promotion, and consumer information.

      Sec. 606. Technical corrections.

Subtitle B--New Authorities

      Sec. 611. Nutrient composition data.

      Sec. 612. National Swine Research Center.

      Sec. 613. Role of Secretary regarding food and agricultural sciences research and extension.

      Sec. 614. Office of Pest Management Policy.

      Sec. 615. Food Safety Research Information Office and National Conference.

      Sec. 616. Safe food handling education.

      Sec. 617. Reimbursement of expenses incurred under Sheep Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1994.

      Sec. 618. Designation of Crisis Management Team within Department.

      Sec. 619. Designation of Kika de la Garza Subtropical Agricultural Research Center, Weslaco, Texas.

Subtitle C--Studies

      Sec. 631. Evaluation and assessment of agricultural research, extension, and education programs.

      Sec. 632. Study of federally funded agricultural research, extension, and education.

Subtitle D--Senses of Congress

      Sec. 641. Sense of Congress regarding Agricultural Research Service emphasis on field research regarding methyl bromide alternatives.

      Sec. 642. Sense of Congress regarding importance of school-based agricultural education.

SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.

    In this Act:

      (1) 1862 INSTITUTION- The term `1862 Institution' means a college or university eligible to receive funds under the Act of July 2, 1862 (12 Stat. 503, chapter 130; 7 U.S.C. 301 et seq.).

      (2) 1890 INSTITUTION- The term `1890 Institution' means a college or university eligible to receive funds under the Act of August 30, 1890 (26 Stat. 419, chapter 841; 7 U.S.C. 321 et seq.), including Tuskegee University.

      (3) 1994 INSTITUTION- The term `1994 Institution' means 1 of the 1994 Institutions (as defined in section 532 of the Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994 (Public Law 103-382; 7 U.S.C. 301 note)) (as amended by section 251(a)).

      (4) ADVISORY BOARD- The term `Advisory Board' means the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board established under section 1408 of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3123).

      (5) DEPARTMENT- The term `Department' means the Department of Agriculture.

      (6) SECRETARY- The term `Secretary' means the Secretary of Agriculture.

SEC. 3. SHORT TITLES FOR SMITH-LEVER ACT AND HATCH ACT OF 1887.

    (a) SMITH-LEVER ACT- The Act of May 8, 1914 (commonly known as the `Smith-Lever Act') (38 Stat. 372, chapter 79; 7 U.S.C. 341 et seq.), is amended by adding at the end the following:

`SEC. 11. SHORT TITLE.

    `This Act may be cited as the `Smith-Lever Act'.'.

    (b) HATCH ACT OF 1887- The Act of March 2, 1887 (commonly known as the `Hatch Act of 1887') (24 Stat. 440, chapter 314; 7 U.S.C. 361a et seq.), is amended by adding at the end the following:

`SEC. 10. SHORT TITLE.

    `This Act may be cited as the `Hatch Act of 1887'.'.

TITLE I--PRIORITIES, SCOPE, REVIEW, AND COORDINATION OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND EDUCATION

SEC. 101. STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL FUNDING OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND EDUCATION.

    (a) IN GENERAL- The Secretary shall ensure that agricultural research, extension, or education activities described in subsection (b) address a concern that--

      (1) is a priority, as determined under section 102(a); and

      (2) has national, multistate, or regional significance.

    (b) APPLICATION- Subsection (a) applies to--

      (1) research activities conducted by the Agricultural Research Service; and

      (2) research, extension, or education activities administered, on a competitive basis, by the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service.

SEC. 102. PRIORITY SETTING PROCESS.

    (a) ESTABLISHMENT- Consistent with section 1402 of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3101), the Secretary shall establish priorities for agricultural research, extension, and education activities conducted or funded by the Department.

    (b) RESPONSIBILITIES OF SECRETARY- In establishing priorities for agricultural research, extension, and education activities conducted or funded by the Department, the Secretary shall solicit and consider input and recommendations from persons who conduct or use agricultural research, extension, or education.

    (c) RESPONSIBILITIES OF 1862, 1890, AND 1994 INSTITUTIONS-

      (1) PROCESS- Effective October 1, 1999, to obtain agricultural research, extension, or education formula funds from the Secretary, each 1862 Institution, 1890 Institution, and 1994 Institution shall establish and implement a process for obtaining input from persons who conduct or use agricultural research, extension, or education concerning the use of the funds.

      (2) REGULATIONS- The Secretary shall promulgate regulations that prescribe--

        (A) the requirements for an institution referred to in paragraph (1) to comply with paragraph (1); and

        (B) the consequences for an institution of not complying with paragraph (1), which may include the withholding or redistribution of funds to which the institution may be entitled until the institution complies with paragraph (1).

    (d) MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES- To the maximum extent practicable, the Secretary shall ensure that federally supported and conducted agricultural research, extension, and education activities are accomplished in a manner that--

      (1) integrates agricultural research, extension, and education functions to better link research to technology transfer and information dissemination activities;

      (2) encourages regional and multistate programs to address relevant issues of common concern and to better leverage scarce resources; and

      (3) achieves agricultural research, extension, and education objectives through multi-institutional and multifunctional approaches and by conducting research at facilities and institutions best equipped to achieve those objectives.

SEC. 103. RELEVANCE AND MERIT OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND EDUCATION FUNDED BY THE DEPARTMENT.

    (a) REVIEW OF COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE-

      (1) PEER REVIEW OF RESEARCH GRANTS- The Secretary shall establish procedures that provide for scientific peer review of each agricultural research grant administered, on a competitive basis, by the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service of the Department.

      (2) MERIT REVIEW OF EXTENSION AND EDUCATION GRANTS-

        (A) ESTABLISHMENT OF PROCEDURES- The Secretary shall establish procedures that provide for merit review of each agricultural extension or education grant administered, on a competitive basis, by the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service.

        (B) CONSULTATION WITH ADVISORY BOARD- The Secretary shall consult with the Advisory Board in establishing the merit review procedures.

    (b) ADVISORY BOARD REVIEW- On an annual basis, the Advisory Board shall review--

      (1) the relevance to the priorities established under section 102(a) of the funding of all agricultural research, extension, or education activities conducted or funded by the Department; and

      (2) the adequacy of the funding.

    (c) REQUESTS FOR PROPOSALS-

      (1) REVIEW RESULTS- As soon as practicable after the review is conducted under subsection (b) for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall consider the results of the review when formulating each request for proposals, and evaluating proposals, involving an agricultural research, extension, or education activity funded, on a competitive basis, by the Department.

      (2) INPUT- In formulating a request for proposals described in paragraph (1) for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall solicit and consider input from persons who conduct or use agricultural research, extension, or education regarding the prior year's request for proposals.

    (d) SCIENTIFIC PEER REVIEW OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH-

      (1) PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES- The Secretary shall establish procedures that ensure scientific peer review of all research activities conducted by the Department.

      (2) REVIEW PANEL REQUIRED- As part of the procedures established under paragraph (1), a review panel shall verify, at least once every 5 years, that each research activity of the Department and research conducted under each research program of the Department has scientific merit and relevance.

      (3) MISSION AREA- If the research activity or program to be reviewed is included in the research, educational, and economics mission area of the Department, the review panel shall consider--

        (A) the scientific merit and relevance of the activity or research in light of the priorities established pursuant to section 102; and

        (B) the national or multistate significance of the activity or research.

      (4) COMPOSITION OF REVIEW PANEL-

        (A) IN GENERAL- A review panel shall be composed of individuals with scientific expertise, a majority of whom are not employees of the agency whose research is being reviewed.

        (B) SCIENTISTS FROM COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES- To the maximum extent practicable, the Secretary shall use scientists from colleges and universities to serve on the review panels.

      (5) SUBMISSION OF RESULTS- The results of the panel reviews shall be submitted to the Advisory Board.

    (e) MERIT REVIEW-

      (1) 1862 AND 1890 INSTITUTIONS- Effective October 1, 1999, to be eligible to obtain agricultural research or extension funds from the Secretary for an activity, each 1862 Institution and 1890 Institution shall--

        (A) establish a process for merit review of the activity; and

        (B) review the activity in accordance with the process.

      (2) 1994 INSTITUTIONS- Effective October 1, 1999, to be eligible to obtain agricultural extension funds from the Secretary for an activity, each 1994 Institution shall--

        (A) establish a process for merit review of the activity; and

        (B) review the activity in accordance with the process.

    (f) REPEAL OF PROVISIONS FOR WITHHOLDING FUNDS-

      (1) SMITH-LEVER ACT- Section 6 of the Smith-Lever Act (7 U.S.C. 346) is repealed.

      (2) HATCH ACT OF 1887- Section 7 of the Hatch Act of 1887 (7 U.S.C. 361g) is amended by striking the last paragraph.

      (3) NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND TEACHING POLICY ACT OF 1977- The National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 is amended--

        (A) in section 1444 (7 U.S.C. 3221)--

          (i) by striking subsection (f); and

          (ii) by redesignating subsection (g) as subsection (f);

        (B) in section 1445(g) (7 U.S.C. 3222(g)), by striking paragraph (3); and

        (C) by striking section 1468 (7 U.S.C. 3314).

SEC. 104. RESEARCH FORMULA FUNDS FOR 1862 INSTITUTIONS.

    (a) IN GENERAL- Section 3 of the Hatch Act of 1887 (7 U.S.C. 361c) is amended--

      (1) in subsection (c)--

        (A) by redesignating paragraphs 1, 2, 3, and 5 as paragraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4), respectively; and

        (B) by striking paragraph (3) and inserting the following:

      `(3) Not less than 25 percent shall be allotted to the States for cooperative research employing multidisciplinary approaches in which a State agricultural experiment station, working with another State agricultural experiment station, the Agricultural Research Service, or a college or university, cooperates to solve problems that concern more than 1 State. The funds available under this paragraph, together with the funds available under subsection (b) for a similar purpose, shall be designated as the `Multistate Research Fund, State Agricultural Experiment Stations'.'; and

      (2) by adding at the end the following:

    `(h) PEER REVIEW AND PLAN OF WORK-

      `(1) PEER REVIEW- Research carried out under subsection (c)(3) shall be subject to scientific peer review. The review of a project conducted under this paragraph shall be considered to satisfy the merit review requirements of section 103(e) of the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998.

      `(2) PLAN OF WORK- The State shall include in the plan of work of the State required under section 7 a description of the manner in which the State will meet the requirements of subsection (c)(3).'.

    (b) CONFORMING AMENDMENTS- Section 3 of the Hatch Act of 1887 (7 U.S.C. 361c) is amended--

      (1) in subsection (b)(1), by striking `subsection 3(c)(3)' and inserting `subsection (c)(3)'; and

      (2) in subsection (e), by striking `subsection 3(c)3' and inserting `subsection (c)(3)'.

SEC. 105. EXTENSION FORMULA FUNDS FOR 1862 INSTITUTIONS.

    Section 3 of the Smith-Lever Act (7 U.S.C. 343) is amended by adding at the end the following:

    `(h) MULTISTATE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION ACTIVITIES-

      `(1) IN GENERAL- Not less than the applicable percentage specified under paragraph (2) of the amounts that are paid to a State under subsections (b) and (c) during a fiscal year shall be expended by States for cooperative extension activities in which 2 or more States cooperate to solve problems that concern more than 1 State (referred to in this subsection as `multistate activities').

      `(2) APPLICABLE PERCENTAGES-

        `(A) 1997 EXPENDITURES ON MULTISTATE ACTIVITIES- Of the Federal formula funds that were paid to each State for fiscal year 1997 under subsections (b) and (c), the Secretary of Agriculture shall determine the percentage that the State expended for multistate activities.

        `(B) REQUIRED EXPENDITURES ON MULTISTATE ACTIVITIES- Of the Federal formula funds that are paid to each State for fiscal year 2000 and each subsequent fiscal year under subsections (b) and (c), the State shall expend for the fiscal year for multistate activities a percentage that is at least equal to the lesser of--

          `(i) 25 percent; or

          `(ii) twice the percentage for the State determined under subparagraph (A).

        `(C) REDUCTION BY SECRETARY- The Secretary may reduce the minimum percentage required to be expended for multistate activities under subparagraph (B) by a State in a case of hardship, infeasibility, or other similar circumstance beyond the control of the State, as determined by the Secretary.

        `(D) PLAN OF WORK- The State shall include in the plan of work of the State required under section 4 a description of the manner in which the State will meet the requirements of this paragraph.

      `(3) APPLICABILITY- This subsection does not apply to funds provided--

        `(A) by a State or local government pursuant to a matching requirement;

        `(B) to a 1994 Institution (as defined in section 532 of the Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994 (Public Law 103-382; 7 U.S.C. 301 note)); or

        `(C) to the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, or Guam.

    `(i) MERIT REVIEW-

      `(1) REVIEW REQUIRED- Effective October 1, 1999, extension activity carried out under subsection (h) shall be subject to merit review.

      `(2) OTHER REQUIREMENTS- An extension activity for which merit review is conducted under paragraph (1) shall be considered to have satisfied the requirements for review under section 103(e) of the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998.'.

SEC. 106. RESEARCH FACILITIES.

    (a) CRITERIA FOR APPROVAL- Section 3(c)(2)(C)(ii) of the Research Facilities Act (7 U.S.C. 390a(c)(2)(C)(ii)) is amended by striking `regional needs' and inserting `national or multistate needs'.

    (b) NATIONAL OR MULTISTATE NEEDS SERVED BY ARS FACILITIES- Section 3 of the Research Facilities Act (7 U.S.C. 390a) is amended by adding at the end the following:

    `(e) NATIONAL OR MULTISTATE NEEDS SERVED BY ARS FACILITIES- The Secretary shall ensure that each research activity conducted by a facility of the Agricultural Research Service serves a national or multistate need.'.

    (c) 10-YEAR STRATEGIC PLAN- Section 4(d) of the Research Facilities Act (7 U.S.C. 390b(d)) is amended by striking `regional' and inserting `multistate'.

    (d) COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH CAPACITY- Section 4 of the Research Facilities Act (7 U.S.C. 390b) is amended by adding at the end the following:

    `(g) COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH CAPACITY- After submission of the 10-year strategic plan required under subsection (d), the Secretary shall continue to review periodically each operating agricultural research facility constructed in whole or in part with Federal funds, and each planned agricultural research facility proposed to be constructed in whole or in part with Federal funds, pursuant to criteria established by the Secretary, to ensure that a comprehensive research capacity is maintained.'.

TITLE II--REFORM OF EXISTING AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND EDUCATION AUTHORITIES

Subtitle A--Smith-Lever Act and Hatch Act of 1887

SEC. 201. COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORK BY 1862, 1890, AND 1994 INSTITUTIONS.

    Section 3(b)(3) of the Smith-Lever Act (7 U.S.C. 343(b)(3)) is amended in the last sentence by striking `State institutions' and all that follows through the period at the end and inserting `1994 Institutions (in accordance with regulations that the Secretary may promulgate) and may be administered by the 1994 Institutions through cooperative agreements with colleges and universities eligible to receive funds under the Act of July 2, 1862 (12 Stat. 503, chapter 130; 7 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), or the Act of August 30, 1890 (26 Stat. 419, chapter 841; 7 U.S.C. 321 et seq.), including Tuskegee University, located in any State.'.

SEC. 202. PLANS OF WORK TO ADDRESS CRITICAL RESEARCH AND EXTENSION ISSUES AND USE OF PROTOCOLS TO MEASURE SUCCESS OF PLANS.

    (a) SMITH-LEVER ACT- Section 4 of the Smith-Lever Act (7 U.S.C. 344) is amended--

      (1) by striking `SEC. 4.' and inserting the following:

      `SEC. 4. ASCERTAINMENT OF ENTITLEMENT OF STATE TO FUNDS; TIME AND MANNER OF PAYMENT; STATE REPORTING REQUIREMENTS; PLANS OF WORK.

    `(a) ASCERTAINMENT OF ENTITLEMENT- ';

      (2) in the last sentence, by striking `Such sums' and inserting the following:

    `(b) TIME AND MANNER OF PAYMENT; RELATED REPORTS- The amount to which a State is entitled'; and

      (3) by adding at the end the following:

    `(c) REQUIREMENTS RELATED TO PLAN OF WORK- Each extension plan of work for a State required under subsection (a) shall contain descriptions of the following:

      `(1) The critical short-term, intermediate, and long-term agricultural issues in the State and the current and planned extension programs and projects targeted to address the issues.

      `(2) The process established to consult with extension users regarding the identification of critical agricultural issues in the State and the development of extension programs and projects targeted to address the issues.

      `(3) The efforts made to identify and collaborate with other colleges and universities within the State, and within other States, that have a unique capacity to address the identified agricultural issues in the State and the extent of current and emerging efforts (including regional efforts) to work with those other institutions.

      `(4) The manner in which research and extension, including research and extension activities funded other than through formula funds, will cooperate to address the critical issues in the State, including the activities to be carried out separately, the activities to be carried out sequentially, and the activities to be carried out jointly.

      `(5) The education and outreach programs already underway to convey available research results that are pertinent to a critical agricultural issue, including efforts to encourage multicounty cooperation in the dissemination of research results.

    `(d) EXTENSION PROTOCOLS-

      `(1) DEVELOPMENT- The Secretary of Agriculture shall develop protocols to be used to evaluate the success of multistate, multi-institutional, and multidisciplinary extension activities and joint research and extension activities in addressing critical agricultural issues identified in the plans of work submitted under subsection (a).

      `(2) CONSULTATION- The Secretary of Agriculture shall develop the protocols in consultation with the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board established under section 1408 of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3123) and land-grant colleges and universities.

    `(e) TREATMENT OF PLANS OF WORK FOR OTHER PURPOSES- To the maximum extent practicable, the Secretary shall consider a plan of work submitted under subsection (a) to satisfy other appropriate Federal reporting requirements.'.

    (b) HATCH ACT OF 1887- Section 7 of the Hatch Act of 1887 (7 U.S.C. 361g) (as amended by section 103(f)(2)) is amended--

      (1) by striking `SEC. 7.' and inserting the following:

      `SEC. 7. DUTIES OF SECRETARY; ASCERTAINMENT OF ENTITLEMENT OF STATE TO FUNDS; PLANS OF WORK.

    `(a) DUTIES OF SECRETARY- ';

      (2) by striking `On or before' and inserting the following:

    `(b) ASCERTAINMENT OF ENTITLEMENT- On or before';

      (3) by striking `Whenever it shall appear' and inserting the following:

    `(c) EFFECT OF FAILURE TO EXPEND FULL ALLOTMENT- Whenever it shall appear'; and

      (4) by adding at the end the following:

    `(d) PLAN OF WORK REQUIRED- Before funds may be provided to a State under this Act for any fiscal year, a plan of work to be carried out under this Act shall be submitted by the proper officials of the State and shall be approved by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    `(e) REQUIREMENTS RELATED TO PLAN OF WORK- Each plan of work for a State required under subsection (d) shall contain descriptions of the following:

      `(1) The critical short-term, intermediate, and long-term agricultural issues in the State and the current and planned research programs and projects targeted to address the issues.

      `(2) The process established to consult with users of agricultural research regarding the identification of critical agricultural issues in the State and the development of research programs and projects targeted to address the issues.

      `(3) The efforts made to identify and collaborate with other colleges and universities within the State, and within other States, that have a unique capacity to address the identified agricultural issues in the State and the extent of current and emerging efforts (including regional efforts) to work with those other institutions.

      `(4) The manner in which research and extension, including research and extension activities funded other than through formula funds, will cooperate to address the critical issues in the State, including the activities to be carried out separately, the activities to be carried out sequentially, and the activities to be carried out jointly.

    `(f) RESEARCH PROTOCOLS-

      `(1) DEVELOPMENT- The Secretary of Agriculture shall develop protocols to be used to evaluate the success of multistate, multi-institutional, and multidisciplinary research activities and joint research and extension activities in addressing critical agricultural issues identified in the plans of work submitted under subsection (d).

      `(2) CONSULTATION- The Secretary of Agriculture shall develop the protocols in consultation with the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board established under section 1408 of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3123) and land-grant colleges and universities.

    `(g) TREATMENT OF PLANS OF WORK FOR OTHER PURPOSES- To the maximum extent practicable, the Secretary shall consider a plan of work submitted under subsection (d) to satisfy other appropriate Federal reporting requirements.'.

    (c) EFFECTIVE DATE- The amendments made by this section take effect on October 1, 1999.

SEC. 203. CONSISTENT MATCHING FUNDS REQUIREMENTS UNDER HATCH ACT OF 1887 AND SMITH-LEVER ACT.

    (a) HATCH ACT OF 1887- Section 3 of the Hatch Act of 1887 (7 U.S.C. 361c) is amended by striking subsection (d) and inserting the following:

    `(d) MATCHING FUNDS-

      `(1) REQUIREMENT- No allotment shall be made to a State under subsection (b) or (c), and no payments from the allotment shall be made to a State, in excess of the amount that the State makes available out of non-Federal funds for agricultural research and for the establishment and maintenance of facilities for the performance of the research.

      `(2) FAILURE TO PROVIDE MATCHING FUNDS- If a State fails to comply with the requirement to provide matching funds for a fiscal year under paragraph (1), the Secretary of Agriculture shall withhold from payment to the State for that fiscal year an amount equal to the difference between--

        `(A) the amount that would be allotted and paid to the State under subsections (b) and (c) (if the full amount of matching funds were provided by the State); and

        `(B) the amount of matching funds actually provided by the State.

      `(3) REAPPORTIONMENT-

        `(A) IN GENERAL- The Secretary of Agriculture shall reapportion amounts withheld under paragraph (2) for a fiscal year among the States satisfying the matching requirement for that fiscal year.

        `(B) MATCHING REQUIREMENT- Any reapportionment of funds under this paragraph shall be subject to the matching requirement specified in paragraph (1).'.

    (b) SMITH-LEVER ACT- Section 3 of the Smith-Lever Act (7 U.S.C. 343) is amended--

      (1) in subsection (c)--

        (A) by redesignating paragraphs 1 and 2 as paragraphs (1) and (2), respectively; and

        (B) in paragraph (2) (as so redesignated), by striking `census: Provided, That payments' and all that follows through `Provided further, That any' and inserting `census. Any'; and

      (2) by striking subsections (e) and (f) and inserting the following:

    `(e) MATCHING FUNDS-

      `(1) REQUIREMENT- Except as provided in subsection (f), no allotment shall be made to a State under subsection (b) or (c), and no payments from the allotment shall be made to a State, in excess of the amount that the State makes available out of non-Federal funds for cooperative extension work.

      `(2) FAILURE TO PROVIDE MATCHING FUNDS- If a State fails to comply with the requirement to provide matching funds for a fiscal year under paragraph (1), the Secretary of Agriculture shall withhold from payment to the State for that fiscal year an amount equal to the difference between--

        `(A) the amount that would be allotted and paid to the State under subsections (b) and (c) (if the full amount of matching funds were provided by the State); and

        `(B) the amount of matching funds actually provided by the State.

      `(3) REAPPORTIONMENT-

        `(A) IN GENERAL- The Secretary of Agriculture shall reapportion amounts withheld under paragraph (2) for a fiscal year among the States satisfying the matching requirement for that fiscal year.

        `(B) MATCHING REQUIREMENT- Any reapportionment of funds under this paragraph shall be subject to the matching requirement specified in paragraph (1).

    `(f) MATCHING FUNDS EXCEPTION FOR 1994 INSTITUTIONS- There shall be no matching requirement for funds made available to a 1994 Institution pursuant to subsection (b)(3).'.

    (c) TECHNICAL CORRECTIONS-

      (1) RECOGNITION OF STATEHOOD OF ALASKA AND HAWAII- Section 1 of the Hatch Act of 1887 (7 U.S.C. 361a) is amended in the second sentence by striking `Alaska, Hawaii,'.

      (2) ROLE OF SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE- Section 3 of the Smith-Lever Act (7 U.S.C. 343) is amended--

        (A) in subsections (b)(1), (c), and (d), by striking `Federal Extension Service' each place it appears and inserting `Secretary of Agriculture'; and

        (B) in subsection (g)(1), by striking `through the Federal Extension Service'.

      (3) REFERENCES TO REGIONAL RESEARCH FUND- Section 5 of the Hatch Act of 1887 (7 U.S.C. 361e) is amended in the first sentence by striking `regional research fund authorized by subsection 3(c)(3)' and inserting `Multistate Research Fund, State Agricultural Experiment Stations'.

SEC. 204. INTEGRATION OF RESEARCH AND EXTENSION.

    (a) IN GENERAL- Section 3 of the Hatch Act of 1887 (7 U.S.C. 361c) (as amended by section 104(a)(2)) is amended by adding at the end the following:

    `(i) INTEGRATION OF RESEARCH AND EXTENSION-

      `(1) IN GENERAL- Not less than the applicable percentage specified under paragraph (2) of the Federal formula funds that are paid under this Act and subsections (b) and (c) of section 3 of the Smith-Lever Act (7 U.S.C. 343) to colleges and universities eligible to receive funds under the Act of July 2, 1862 (12 Stat. 503, chapter 130; 7 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), during a fiscal year shall be expended for activities that integrate cooperative research and extension (referred to in this subsection as `integrated activities').

      `(2) APPLICABLE PERCENTAGES-

        `(A) 1997 EXPENDITURES ON MULTISTATE ACTIVITIES- Of the Federal formula funds that were paid to each State for fiscal year 1997 under this Act and subsections (b) and (c) of section 3 of the Smith-Lever Act (7 U.S.C. 343), the Secretary of Agriculture shall determine the percentage that the State expended for integrated activities.

        `(B) REQUIRED EXPENDITURES ON MULTISTATE ACTIVITIES- Of the Federal formula funds that are paid to each State for fiscal year 2000 and each subsequent fiscal year under this Act and subsections (b) and (c) of section 3 of the Smith-Lever Act (7 U.S.C. 343), the State shall expend for the fiscal year for integrated activities a percentage that is at least equal to the lesser of--

          `(i) 25 percent; or

          `(ii) twice the percentage for the State determined under subparagraph (A).

        `(C) REDUCTION BY SECRETARY- The Secretary of Agriculture may reduce the minimum percentage required to be expended by a State for integrated activities under subparagraph (B) in a case of hardship, infeasibility, or other similar circumstance beyond the control of the State, as determined by the Secretary.

        `(D) PLAN OF WORK- The State shall include in the plan of work of the State required under section 7 of this Act or section 4 of the Smith-Lever Act (7 U.S.C. 344), as applicable, a description of the manner in which the State will meet the requirements of this paragraph.

      `(3) APPLICABILITY- This subsection does not apply to funds provided--

        `(A) by a State or local government pursuant to a matching requirement;

        `(B) to a 1994 Institution (as defined in section 532 of the Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994 (Public Law 103-382; 7 U.S.C. 301 note)); or

        `(C) to the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, or Guam.

      `(4) RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER REQUIREMENTS- Federal formula funds described in paragraph (1) that are used by a State for a fiscal year for integrated activities in accordance with paragraph (2)(B) may also be used to satisfy the multistate activities requirements of subsection (c)(3) of this section and section 3(h) of the Smith-Lever Act (7 U.S.C. 343(h)) for the same fiscal year.'.

    (b) CONFORMING AMENDMENT- Section 3 of the Smith-Lever Act (7 U.S.C. 343) (as amended by section 105) is amended by adding at the end the following:

    `(j) INTEGRATION OF RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Section 3(i) of the Hatch Act of 1887 (7 U.S.C. 361c(i)) shall apply to amounts made available to carry out this Act.'.

Subtitle B--Competitive, Special, and Facilities Research Grant Act

SEC. 211. COMPETITIVE GRANTS.

    The Competitive, Special, and Facilities Research Grant Act (7 U.S.C. 450i) is amended in subsection (b)--

      (1) in the first sentence of paragraph (1), by inserting `national laboratories,' after `Federal agencies,';

      (2) in paragraph (2), by striking `regional' and inserting `multistate';

      (3) in the second sentence of paragraph (3)(E), by striking `an individual shall have less than' and all that follows through `research experience' and inserting `an individual shall be within 5 years of the individual's initial career track position'; and

      (4) in paragraph (8)(B)--

        (A) by striking `the cost' and inserting `the cost of'; and

        (B) by adding at the end the following: `The Secretary may waive all or part of the matching requirement under this subparagraph in the case of a smaller college or university (as described in section 793(c)(2)(C)(ii) of the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (7 U.S.C. 2204f(c)(2)(C)(ii))) if the equipment to be acquired costs not more than $25,000 and has multiple uses within a single research project or is usable in more than 1 research project.'.

SEC. 212. SPECIAL GRANTS.

    The Competitive, Special, and Facilities Research Grant Act (7 U.S.C. 450i) is amended in subsection (c)--

      (1) in paragraph (1)--

        (A) by striking `5 years' and inserting `3 years';

        (B) in subparagraph (A), by inserting `, extension, or education activities' after `conducting research'; and

        (C) in subparagraph (B)--

          (i) in the matter preceding clause (i), by inserting `, extension, or education' after `agricultural research';

          (ii) in clause (i), by inserting `, extension, or education' after `research'; and

          (iii) in clause (iv), by striking `among States through regional research' and inserting `, extension, or education among States through regional'; and

      (2) by adding at the end the following:

      `(5) REVIEW REQUIREMENTS-

        `(A) RESEARCH ACTIVITIES- The Secretary shall make a grant under this subsection for a research activity only if the activity has undergone scientific peer review arranged by the grantee in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary.

        `(B) EXTENSION AND EDUCATION ACTIVITIES- The Secretary shall make a grant under this subsection for an extension or education activity only if the activity has undergone merit review arranged by the grantee in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary.

      `(6) REPORTS-

        `(A) IN GENERAL- A recipient of a grant under this subsection shall submit to the Secretary on an annual basis a report describing the results of the research, extension, or education activity and the merit of the results.

        `(B) PUBLIC AVAILABILITY-

          `(i) IN GENERAL- Except as provided in clause (ii), on request, the Secretary shall make the report available to the public.

          `(ii) EXCEPTIONS- Clause (i) shall not apply to the extent that making the report, or a part of the report, available to the public is not authorized or permitted by section 552 of title 5, United States Code, or section 1905 of title 18, United States Code.'.

Subtitle C--National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977

SEC. 221. DEFINITIONS REGARDING AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND EDUCATION.

    (a) FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES- Section 1404 of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3103) is amended by striking paragraph (8) and inserting the following:

      `(8) FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES- The term `food and agricultural sciences' means basic, applied, and developmental research, extension, and teaching activities in food and fiber, agricultural, renewable natural resources, forestry, and physical and social sciences, including activities relating to the following:

        `(A) Animal health, production, and well-being.

        `(B) Plant health and production.

        `(C) Animal and plant germ plasm collection and preservation.

        `(D) Aquaculture.

        `(E) Food safety.

        `(F) Soil and water conservation and improvement.

        `(G) Forestry, horticulture, and range management.

        `(H) Nutritional sciences and promotion.

        `(I) Farm enhancement, including financial management, input efficiency, and profitability.

        `(J) Home economics.

        `(K) Rural human ecology.

        `(L) Youth development and agricultural education, including 4-H clubs.

        `(M) Expansion of domestic and international markets for agricultural commodities and products, including agricultural trade barrier identification and analysis.

        `(N) Information management and technology transfer related to agriculture.

        `(O) Biotechnology related to agriculture.

        `(P) The processing, distributing, marketing, and utilization of food and agricultural products.'.

    (b) REFERENCES TO TEACHING OR EDUCATION- Section 1404(14) of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3103(14)) is amended by striking `the term `teaching' means' and inserting `TEACHING AND EDUCATION- The terms `teaching' and `education' mean'.

    (c) CONFORMING AMENDMENTS- Section 1404 of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3103) is amended--

      (1) in the matter preceding paragraph (1), by striking `title--' and inserting `title:';

      (2) in paragraphs (1), (2), (3), (5), (6), (7), (10) through (13), (15), (16), and (17), by striking `the term' each place it appears and inserting `The term';

      (3) in paragraph (4), by striking `the terms' and inserting `The terms';

      (4) in paragraph (9), by striking `the term' the first place it appears and inserting `The term';

      (5) by striking the semicolon at the end of paragraphs (1) through (7) and (9) through (15) and inserting a period; and

      (6) in paragraph (16)(F), by striking `; and' and inserting a period.

SEC. 222. ADVISORY BOARD.

    (a) REPRESENTATION ON BOARD- Section 1408(b) of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3123(b)) is amended by adding at the end the following:

      `(7) EQUAL REPRESENTATION OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR MEMBERS- In appointing members to serve on the Advisory Board, the Secretary shall ensure, to the maximum extent practicable, equal representation of public and private sector members.'.

    (b) CONSULTATION- Section 1408(d) of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3123(d)) is amended--

      (1) by striking `In' and inserting the following:

      `(1) DUTIES OF ADVISORY BOARD- In'; and

      (2) by adding at the end the following:

      `(2) DUTIES OF SECRETARY- To comply with a provision of this title or any other law that requires the Secretary to consult or cooperate with the Advisory Board or that authorizes the Advisory Board to submit recommendations to the Secretary, the Secretary shall--

        `(A) solicit the written opinions and recommendations of the Advisory Board; and

        `(B) provide a written response to the Advisory Board regarding the manner and extent to which the Secretary will implement recommendations submitted by the Advisory Board.'.

    (c) LIMITATION ON EXPENSES OF ADVISORY BOARD- Section 1408 of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3123) is amended--

      (1) by redesignating subsection (g) as subsection (h); and

      (2) by inserting after subsection (f) the following:

    `(g) ANNUAL LIMITATION ON ADVISORY BOARD EXPENSES-

      `(1) MAXIMUM AMOUNT- Not more than $350,000 may be used to cover the necessary expenses of the Advisory Board for each fiscal year.

      `(2) GENERAL LIMITATION- The expenses of the Advisory Board shall not be counted toward any general limitation on the expenses of advisory committees, panels, commissions, and task forces of the Department of Agriculture contained in any Act making appropriations for the Department of Agriculture, whether enacted before, on, or after the date of enactment of this paragraph, unless the appropriation Act specifically refers to this subsection and specifically includes this Advisory Board within the general limitation.'.

SEC. 223. GRANTS AND FELLOWSHIPS FOR FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES EDUCATION.

    Section 1417 of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3152) is amended--

      (1) by redesignating subsections (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), (i), and (j) as subsections (d), (f), (g), (h), (i), (j), (k), and (l), respectively;

      (2) by inserting after subsection (b) the following:

    `(c) PRIORITIES- In awarding grants under subsection (b), the Secretary shall give priority to--

      `(1) applications for teaching enhancement projects that demonstrate enhanced coordination among all types of institutions eligible for funding under this section; and

      `(2) applications for teaching enhancement projects that focus on innovative, multidisciplinary education programs, material, and curricula.'; and

      (3) by inserting after subsection (d) (as redesignated by paragraph (1)) the following:

    `(e) FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION INFORMATION SYSTEM- From amounts made available for grants under this section, the Secretary may maintain a national food and agricultural education information system that contains--

      `(1) information on enrollment, degrees awarded, faculty, and employment placement in the food and agricultural sciences; and

      `(2) such other similar information as the Secretary considers appropriate.'.

SEC. 224. POLICY RESEARCH CENTERS.

    Section 1419A(a) of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3155(a)) is amended by inserting `and trade agreements' after `public policies'.

SEC. 225. PLANS OF WORK FOR 1890 INSTITUTIONS TO ADDRESS CRITICAL RESEARCH AND EXTENSION ISSUES AND USE OF PROTOCOLS TO MEASURE SUCCESS OF PLANS.

    (a) EXTENSION AT 1890 INSTITUTIONS- Section 1444(d) of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3221(d)) is amended--

      (1) by striking `(d)' and inserting the following:

    `(d) ASCERTAINMENT OF ENTITLEMENT TO FUNDS; TIME AND MANNER OF PAYMENT; STATE REPORTING REQUIREMENTS; PLANS OF WORK-

      `(1) ASCERTAINMENT OF ENTITLEMENT- ';

      (2) in the last sentence, by striking `Such sums' and inserting the following:

      `(2) TIME AND MANNER OF PAYMENT; RELATED REPORTS- The amount to which an eligible institution is entitled'; and

      (3) by adding at the end the following:

      `(3) REQUIREMENTS RELATED TO PLAN OF WORK- Each plan of work for an eligible institution required under this section shall contain descriptions of the following:

        `(A) The critical short-term, intermediate, and long-term agricultural issues in the State in which the eligible institution is located and the current and planned extension programs and projects targeted to address the issues.

        `(B) The process established to consult with extension users regarding the identification of critical agricultural issues in the State and the development of extension programs and projects targeted to address the issues.

        `(C) The efforts made to identify and collaborate with other colleges and universities within the State, and within other States, that have a unique capacity to address the identified agricultural issues in the State and the extent of current and emerging efforts (including regional extension efforts) to work with those other institutions.

        `(D) The manner in which research and extension, including research and extension activities funded other than through formula funds, will cooperate to address the critical issues in the State, including the activities to be carried out separately, the activities to be carried out sequentially, and the activities to be carried out jointly.

        `(E) The education and outreach programs already underway to convey currently available research results that are pertinent to a critical agricultural issue, including efforts to encourage multicounty cooperation in the dissemination of research results.

      `(4) EXTENSION PROTOCOLS-

        `(A) IN GENERAL- The Secretary shall develop protocols to be used to evaluate the success of multistate, multi-institutional, and multidisciplinary extension activities and joint research and extension activities in addressing critical agricultural issues identified in the plans of work submitted under this section.

        `(B) CONSULTATION- The Secretary shall develop the protocols in consultation with the Advisory Board and land-grant colleges and universities.

      `(5) TREATMENT OF PLANS OF WORK FOR OTHER PURPOSES- To the maximum extent practicable, the Secretary shall consider a plan of work submitted under this section to satisfy other appropriate Federal reporting requirements.'.

    (b) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AT 1890 INSTITUTIONS- Section 1445(c) of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3222(c)) is amended--

      (1) by striking `(c)' and inserting the following:

    `(c) PROGRAM AND PLANS OF WORK-

      `(1) INITIAL COMPREHENSIVE PROGRAM OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH- '; and

      (2) by adding at the end the following:

      `(2) PLAN OF WORK REQUIRED- Before funds may be provided to an eligible institution under this section for any fiscal year, a plan of work to be carried out under this section shall be submitted by the research director specified in subsection (d) and shall be approved by the Secretary.

      `(3) REQUIREMENTS RELATED TO PLAN OF WORK- Each plan of work required under paragraph (2) shall contain descriptions of the following:

        `(A) The critical short-term, intermediate, and long-term agricultural issues in the State in which the eligible institution is located and the current and planned research programs and projects targeted to address the issues.

        `(B) The process established to consult with users of agricultural research regarding the identification of critical agricultural issues in the State and the development of research programs and projects targeted to address the issues.

        `(C) Other colleges and universities within the State, and within other States, that have a unique capacity to address the identified agricultural issues in the State.

        `(D) The current and emerging efforts to work with those other institutions to build on each other's experience and take advantage of each institution's unique capacities.

        `(E) The manner in which research and extension, including research and extension activities funded other than through formula funds, will cooperate to address the critical issues in the State, including the activities to be carried out separately, the activities to be carried out sequentially, and the activities to be carried out jointly.

      `(4) RESEARCH PROTOCOLS-

        `(A) IN GENERAL- The Secretary shall develop protocols to be used to evaluate the success of multistate, multi-institutional, and multidisciplinary research activities and joint research and extension activities in addressing critical agricultural issues identified in the plans of work submitted under paragraph (2).

        `(B) CONSULTATION- The Secretary shall develop the protocols in consultation with the Advisory Board and land-grant colleges and universities.

      `(5) TREATMENT OF PLANS OF WORK FOR OTHER PURPOSES- To the maximum extent practicable, the Secretary shall consider a plan of work submitted under paragraph (2) to satisfy other appropriate Federal reporting requirements.'.

    (c) EFFECTIVE DATE- The amendments made by this section take effect on October 1, 1999.

SEC. 226. MATCHING FUNDS REQUIREMENT FOR RESEARCH AND EXTENSION ACTIVITIES AT 1890 INSTITUTIONS.

    (a) IMPOSITION OF REQUIREMENT- Subtitle G of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 is amended by inserting after section 1448 (7 U.S.C. 3222c) the following:

`SEC. 1449. MATCHING FUNDS REQUIREMENT FOR RESEARCH AND EXTENSION ACTIVITIES AT ELIGIBLE INSTITUTIONS.

    `(a) DEFINITIONS- In this section:

      `(1) ELIGIBLE INSTITUTION- The term `eligible institution' means a college eligible to receive funds under the Act of August 30, 1890 (7 U.S.C. 321 et seq.) (commonly known as the `Second Morrill Act'), including Tuskegee University.

      `(2) FORMULA FUNDS- The term `formula funds' means the formula allocation funds distributed to eligible institutions under sections 1444 and 1445.

    `(b) DETERMINATION OF NON-FEDERAL SOURCES OF FUNDS- Not later than September 30, 1999, each eligible institution shall submit to the Secretary a report describing for fiscal year 1999--

      `(1) the sources of non-Federal funds made available by the State to the eligible institution for agricultural research, extension, and education to meet the requirements of this section; and

      `(2) the amount of such funds generally available from each source.

    `(c) MATCHING FORMULA- Notwithstanding any other provision of this subtitle, the distribution of formula funds to an eligible institution shall be subject to the following matching requirements:

      `(1) For fiscal year 2000, the State shall provide matching funds from non-Federal sources in an amount equal to not less than 30 percent of the formula funds to be distributed to the eligible institution.

      `(2) For fiscal year 2001, the State shall provide matching funds from non-Federal sources in an amount equal to not less than 45 percent of the formula funds to be distributed to the eligible institution.

      `(3) For fiscal year 2002 and each fiscal year thereafter, the State shall provide matching funds from non-Federal sources in an amount equal to not less than 50 percent of the formula funds to be distributed to the eligible institution.

    `(d) LIMITED WAIVER AUTHORITY-

      `(1) FISCAL YEAR 2000- Notwithstanding subsection (f), the Secretary may waive the matching funds requirement under subsection (c)(1) for fiscal year 2000 for an eligible institution of a State if the Secretary determines that, based on the report received under subsection (b), the State will be unlikely to satisfy the matching requirement.

      `(2) FUTURE FISCAL YEARS- The Secretary may not waive the matching requirement under subsection (c) for any fiscal year other than fiscal year 2000.

    `(e) USE OF MATCHING FUNDS- Under terms and conditions established by the Secretary, matching funds provided as required by subsection (c) may be used by an eligible institution for agricultural research, extension, and education activities.

    `(f) REDISTRIBUTION OF FUNDS-

      `(1) REDISTRIBUTION REQUIRED- Federal funds that are not matched by a State in accordance with subsection (c) for a fiscal year shall be redistributed by the Secretary to eligible institutions whose States have satisfied the matching funds requirement for that fiscal year.

      `(2) ADMINISTRATION- Any redistribution of funds under this subsection shall be subject to the applicable matching requirement specified in subsection (c) and shall be made in a manner consistent with sections 1444 and 1445, as determined by the Secretary.'.

    (b) CONFORMING AMENDMENTS- Section 1445(g) of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3222(g)) is amended--

      (1) by striking paragraph (2); and

      (2) by redesignating paragraph (4) as paragraph (2).

    (c) REFERENCES TO TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY- The National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 is amended--

      (1) in section 1404 (7 U.S.C. 3103), by striking `the Tuskegee Institute' in paragraphs (10) and (16)(B) and inserting `Tuskegee University';

      (2) in section 1444 (7 U.S.C. 3221)--

        (A) by striking the section heading and `SEC. 1444.' and inserting the following:

`SEC. 1444. EXTENSION AT 1890 LAND-GRANT COLLEGES, INCLUDING TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY.';

        and

        (B) in subsections (a) and (b), by striking `Tuskegee Institute' each place it appears and inserting `Tuskegee University'; and

      (3) in section 1445 (7 U.S.C. 3222)--

        (A) by striking the section heading and `SEC. 1445.' and inserting the following:

`SEC. 1445. AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AT 1890 LAND-GRANT COLLEGES, INCLUDING TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY.';

        and

        (B) in subsections (a) and (b)(2)(B), by striking `Tuskegee Institute' each place it appears and inserting `Tuskegee University'.

SEC. 227. INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND TEACHING.

    (a) INCLUSION OF TEACHING- Section 1458 of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3291) is amended--

      (1) in the section heading, by striking `research and extension' and inserting `research, extension, and teaching';

      (2) in subsection (a)--

        (A) in paragraph (1)--

          (i) by striking `related research and extension' and inserting `related research, extension, and teaching'; and

          (ii) in subparagraph (B), by striking `research and extension on' and inserting `research, extension, and teaching activities that address';

        (B) in paragraphs (2) and (6), by striking `education' each place it appears and inserting `teaching';

        (C) in paragraph (4), by striking `scientists and experts' and inserting `science and education experts';

        (D) in paragraph (5), by inserting `teaching,' after `development,';

        (E) in paragraph (7), by striking `research and extension that is' and inserting `research, extension, and teaching programs'; and

        (F) in paragraph (8), by striking `research capabilities' and inserting `research, extension, and teaching capabilities'; and

      (3) in subsection (b), by striking `counterpart agencies' and inserting `counterpart research, extension, and teaching agencies'.

    (b) GRANTS FOR COLLABORATIVE PROJECTS- Section 1458(a) of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3291(a)) is amended--

      (1) in paragraph (7), by striking `and' at the end;

      (2) in paragraph (8), by striking the period at the end and inserting `; and'; and

      (3) by adding at the end the following:

      `(9) make competitive grants for collaborative projects that--

        `(A) involve Federal scientists or scientists from land-grant colleges and universities or other colleges and universities with scientists at international agricultural research centers in other nations, including the international agricultural research centers of the Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research;

        `(B) focus on developing and using new technologies and programs for--

          `(i) increasing the production of food and fiber, while safeguarding the environment worldwide and enhancing the global competitiveness of United States agriculture; or

          `(ii) training scientists;

        `(C) are mutually beneficial to the United States and other countries; and

        `(D) encourage private sector involvement and the leveraging of private sector funds.'.

    (c) REPORTS- Section 1458 of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3291) is amended by adding at the end the following:

    `(d) REPORTS- The Secretary shall provide biennial reports to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate on efforts of the Federal Government--

      `(1) to coordinate international agricultural research within the Federal Government; and

      `(2) to more effectively link the activities of domestic and international agricultural researchers, particularly researchers of the Agricultural Research Service.'.

    (d) FULL PAYMENT OF FUNDS MADE AVAILABLE FOR CERTAIN BINATIONAL PROJECTS- Section 1458 of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3291) is amended by inserting after subsection (d) (as added by subsection (c) of this section) the following:

    `(e) FULL PAYMENT OF FUNDS MADE AVAILABLE FOR CERTAIN BINATIONAL PROJECTS- Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the full amount of any funds appropriated or otherwise made available to carry out cooperative projects under the arrangement entered into between the Secretary and the Government of Israel to support the Israel-United States Binational Agricultural Research and Development Fund shall be paid directly to the Fund.'.

    (e) SUBTITLE HEADING- Subtitle I of title XIV of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3291 et seq.) is amended by striking the subtitle heading and inserting the following:

`Subtitle I--International Research, Extension, and Teaching'.

SEC. 228. UNITED STATES-MEXICO JOINT AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH.

    Subtitle I of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 is amended by inserting after section 1458 (7 U.S.C. 3291) the following:

`SEC. 1459. UNITED STATES-MEXICO JOINT AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH.

    `(a) RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM- The Secretary may provide for an agricultural research and development program with the United States/Mexico Foundation for Science. The program shall focus on binational problems facing agricultural producers and consumers in the 2 countries, in particular pressing problems in the areas of food safety, plant and animal pest control, and the natural resources base on which agriculture depends.

    `(b) ADMINISTRATION- Grants under the research and development program shall be awarded competitively through the Foundation.

    `(c) MATCHING REQUIREMENTS- The provision of funds to the Foundation by the United States Government shall be subject to the condition that the Government of Mexico match, on at least a dollar-for-dollar basis, any funds provided by the United States Government.

    `(d) LIMITATION ON USE OF FUNDS- Funds provided under this section may not be used for the planning, repair, rehabilitation, acquisition, or construction of a building or facility.'.

SEC. 229. COMPETITIVE GRANTS FOR INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND EDUCATION PROGRAMS.

    Subtitle I of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3291 et seq.) is amended by inserting after section 1459 (as added by section 228) the following:

`SEC. 1459A. COMPETITIVE GRANTS FOR INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND EDUCATION PROGRAMS.

    `(a) COMPETITIVE GRANTS AUTHORIZED- The Secretary may make competitive grants to colleges and universities in order to strengthen United States economic competitiveness and to promote international market development.

    `(b) PURPOSE OF GRANTS- Grants under this section shall be directed to agricultural research, extension, and teaching activities that will--

      `(1) enhance the international content of the curricula in colleges and universities so as to ensure that United States students acquire an understanding of the international dimensions and trade implications of their studies;

      `(2) ensure that United States scientists, extension agents, and educators involved in agricultural research and development activities outside of the United States have the opportunity to convey the implications of their activities and findings to their peers and students in the United States and to the users of agricultural research, extension, and teaching;

      `(3) enhance the capabilities of colleges and universities to do collaborative research with other countries, in cooperation with other Federal agencies, on issues relevant to United States agricultural competitiveness;

      `(4) enhance the capabilities of colleges and universities to provide cooperative extension education to promote the application of new technology developed in foreign countries to United States agriculture; and

      `(5) enhance the capability of United States colleges and universities, in cooperation with other Federal agencies, to provide leadership and educational programs that will assist United States natural resources and food production, processing, and distribution businesses and industries to compete internationally, including product market identification, international policies limiting or enhancing market production, development of new or enhancement of existing markets, and production efficiencies.

    `(c) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS- There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section for each of fiscal years 1999 through 2002.'.

SEC. 230. GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS.

    (a) LIMITATION ON CHARGING INDIRECT COSTS- Subtitle K of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 is amended by inserting before section 1463 (7 U.S.C. 3311) the following:

`SEC. 1462. LIMITATION ON INDIRECT COSTS FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION PROGRAMS.

    `Except as otherwise provided in law, indirect costs charged against a competitive agricultural research, education, or extension grant awarded under this Act or any other Act pursuant to authority delegated to the Under Secretary of Agriculture for Research, Education, and Economics shall not exceed 19 percent of the total Federal funds provided under the grant award, as determined by the Secretary.'.

    (b) LIMITATION ON DEPARTMENT ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS- Section 1469 of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3315) is amended--

      (1) by striking the section heading and all that follows through `Except as' and inserting the following:

`SEC. 1469. AUDITING, REPORTING, BOOKKEEPING, AND ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS.

    `(a) IN GENERAL- Except as';

      (2) by striking paragraph (3) and inserting the following:

      `(3) the Secretary may retain up to 4 percent of amounts appropriated for agricultural research, extension, and teaching assistance programs for the administration of those programs authorized under this Act or any other Act; and'; and

      (3) by adding at the end the following:

    `(b) COMMUNITY FOOD PROJECTS- The Secretary may retain, for the administration of community food projects under section 25 of the Food Stamp Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 2034), 4 percent of amounts available for the projects, notwithstanding the availability of any appropriation for administrative expenses of the projects.

    `(c) PEER PANEL EXPENSES- Notwithstanding any other provision of law regarding a competitive research, education, or extension grant program of the Department of Agriculture, the Secretary may use grant program funds, as necessary, to supplement funds otherwise available for program administration, to pay for the costs associated with peer review of grant proposals under the program.

    `(d) DEFINITION OF IN-KIND SUPPORT- In any law relating to agricultural research, education, or extension activities administered by the Secretary, the term `in-kind support', with regard to a requirement that the recipient of funds provided by the Secretary match all or part of the amount of the funds, means contributions such as office space, equipment, and staff support.'.

SEC. 231. EXPANSION OF AUTHORITY TO ENTER INTO COST-REIMBURSABLE AGREEMENTS.

    Section 1473A of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3319a) is amended in the first sentence by inserting `or other colleges and universities' after `institutions'.

Subtitle D--Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990

SEC. 241. AGRICULTURAL GENOME INITIATIVE.

    Section 1671 of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 (7 U.S.C. 5924) is amended to read as follows:

`SEC. 1671. AGRICULTURAL GENOME INITIATIVE.

    `(a) GOALS- The goals of this section are--

      `(1) to expand the knowledge of public and private sector entities and persons concerning genomes for species of importance to the food and agriculture sectors in order to maximize the return on the investment in genomics of agriculturally important species;

      `(2) to focus on the species that will yield scientifically important results that will enhance the usefulness of many agriculturally important species;

      `(3) to build on genomic research, such as the Human Genome Initiative and the Arabidopsis Genome Project, to understand gene structure and function that is expected to have considerable payoffs in agriculturally important species;

      `(4) to develop improved bioinformatics to enhance both sequence or structure determination and analysis of the biological function of genes and gene products;

      `(5) to encourage Federal Government participants to maximize the utility of public and private partnerships for agricultural genome research;

      `(6) to allow resources developed under this section, including data, software, germplasm, and other biological materials, to be openly accessible to all persons, subject to any confidentiality requirements imposed by law; and

      `(7) to encourage international partnerships with each partner country responsible for financing its own strategy for agricultural genome research.

    `(b) DUTIES OF SECRETARY- The Secretary of Agriculture (referred to in this section as the `Secretary') shall conduct a research initiative (to be known as the `Agricultural Genome Initiative') for the purpose of--

      `(1) studying and mapping agriculturally significant genes to achieve sustainable and secure agricultural production;

      `(2) ensuring that current gaps in existing agricultural genetics knowledge are filled;

      `(3) identifying and developing a functional understanding of genes responsible for economically important traits in agriculturally important species, including emerging plant and animal diseases causing economic hardship;

      `(4) ensuring future genetic improvement of agriculturally important species;

      `(5) supporting preservation of diverse germplasm;

      `(6) ensuring preservation of biodiversity to maintain access to genes that may be of importance in the future; and

      `(7) otherwise carrying out this section.

    `(c) GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS-

      `(1) AUTHORITY- The Secretary may make grants or enter into cooperative agreements with individuals and organizations in accordance with section 1472 of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3318).

      `(2) COMPETITIVE BASIS- A grant or cooperative agreement under this subsection shall be made or entered into on a competitive basis.

    `(d) ADMINISTRATION- Paragraphs (1), (6), (7), and (11) of subsection (b) of the Competitive, Special, and Facilities Research Grant Act (7 U.S.C. 450i) shall apply with respect to the making of a grant or cooperative agreement under this section.

    `(e) MATCHING OF FUNDS-

      `(1) GENERAL REQUIREMENT- If a grant or cooperative agreement under this section provides a particular benefit to a specific agricultural commodity, the Secretary shall require the recipient to provide funds or in-kind support to match the amount of funds provided by the Secretary under the grant or cooperative agreement.

      `(2) WAIVER- The Secretary may waive the matching funds requirement of paragraph (1) with respect to a research project if the Secretary determines that--

        `(A) the results of the project, while of particular benefit to a specific agricultural commodity, are likely to be applicable to agricultural commodities generally; or

        `(B) the project involves a minor commodity, the project deals with scientifically important research, and the recipient is unable to satisfy the matching funds requirement.

    `(f) CONSULTATION WITH NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES- The Secretary may use funds made available under this section to consult with the National Academy of Sciences regarding the administration of the Agricultural Genome Initiative.'.

SEC. 242. HIGH-PRIORITY RESEARCH AND EXTENSION INITIATIVES.

    Section 1672 of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 (7 U.S.C. 5925) is amended to read as follows:

`SEC. 1672. HIGH-PRIORITY RESEARCH AND EXTENSION INITIATIVES.

    `(a) COMPETITIVE SPECIALIZED RESEARCH AND EXTENSION GRANTS AUTHORIZED- The Secretary of Agriculture (referred to in this section as the `Secretary') may make competitive grants to support research and extension activities specified in subsections (e), (f), and (g). The Secretary shall make the grants in consultation with the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board.

    `(b) ADMINISTRATION-

      `(1) IN GENERAL- Except as otherwise provided in this section, paragraphs (1), (6), (7), and (11) of subsection (b) of the Competitive, Special, and Facilities Research Grant Act (7 U.S.C. 450i) shall apply with respect to the making of grants under this section.

      `(2) USE OF TASK FORCES- To facilitate the making of research and extension grants under this section in the research and extension areas specified in subsection (e), the Secretary may appoint a task force for each such area to make recommendations to the Secretary. The Secretary may not incur costs in excess of $1,000 for any fiscal year in connection with each task force established under this paragraph.

    `(c) MATCHING FUNDS REQUIRED-

      `(1) IN GENERAL- The Secretary shall require the recipient of a grant under this section to provide funds or in-kind support from non-Federal sources in an amount at least equal to the amount provided by the Federal Government.

      `(2) WAIVER AUTHORITY- The Secretary may waive the matching funds requirement specified in paragraph (1) with respect to a research project if the Secretary determines that--

        `(A) the results of the project, while of particular benefit to a specific agricultural commodity, are likely to be applicable to agricultural commodities generally; or

        `(B) the project involves a minor commodity, the project deals with scientifically important research, and the grant recipient is unable to satisfy the matching funds requirement.

    `(d) PARTNERSHIPS ENCOURAGED- Following the completion of a peer review process for grant proposals received under this section, the Secretary may provide a priority to those grant proposals, found in the peer review process to be scientifically meritorious, that involve the cooperation of multiple entities.

    `(e) HIGH-PRIORITY RESEARCH AND EXTENSION AREAS-

      `(1) BROWN CITRUS APHID AND CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of--

        `(A) developing methods to control or eradicate the brown citrus aphid and the citrus tristeza virus from citrus crops grown in the United States; or

        `(B) adapting citrus crops grown in the United States to the brown citrus aphid and the citrus tristeza virus.

      `(2) ETHANOL RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of carrying out or enhancing research on ethanol derived from agricultural crops as an alternative fuel source.

      `(3) AFLATOXIN RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of identifying and controlling aflatoxin in the food and feed chains.

      `(4) MESQUITE RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of developing enhanced production methods and commercial uses of mesquite.

      `(5) PRICKLY PEAR RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of investigating enhanced genetic selection and processing techniques of prickly pears.

      `(6) DEER TICK ECOLOGY RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of studying the population ecology of deer ticks and other insects and pests that transmit Lyme disease.

      `(7) RED MEAT SAFETY RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of developing--

        `(A) intervention strategies that reduce microbial contamination on carcass surfaces;

        `(B) microbiological mapping of carcass surfaces; and

        `(C) model hazard analysis and critical control point plans.

      `(8) GRAIN SORGHUM ERGOT RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of developing techniques for the eradication of sorghum ergot.

      `(9) PEANUT MARKET ENHANCEMENT RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of evaluating the economics of applying innovative technologies for peanut processing in a commercial environment.

      `(10) DAIRY FINANCIAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of providing research, development, or education materials, information, and outreach programs regarding risk management strategies for dairy producers and for dairy cooperatives and other processors and marketers of milk.

      `(11) COTTON RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of improving pest management, fiber quality enhancement, economic assessment, textile production, and optimized production systems for short staple cotton.

      `(12) METHYL BROMIDE RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of--

        `(A) developing and evaluating chemical and nonchemical alternatives, and use and emission reduction strategies, for pre-planting and post-harvest uses of methyl bromide; and

        `(B) transferring the results of the research for use by agricultural producers.

      `(13) POTATO RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of developing and evaluating new strains of potatoes that are resistant to blight and other diseases, as well as insects. Emphasis may be placed on developing potato varieties that lend themselves to innovative marketing approaches.

      `(14) WOOD USE RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of developing new uses for wood from underused tree species as well as investigating methods of modifying wood and wood fibers to produce better building materials.

      `(15) LOW-BUSH BLUEBERRY RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of evaluating methods of propagating and developing low-bush blueberry as a marketable crop.

      `(16) WETLANDS USE RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of better use of wetlands in diverse ways to provide various economic, agricultural, and environmental benefits.

      `(17) WILD PAMPAS GRASS CONTROL, MANAGEMENT, AND ERADICATION RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of control, management, and eradication of wild pampas grass.

      `(18) FOOD SAFETY, INCLUDING PATHOGEN DETECTION AND LIMITATION, RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of increasing food safety, including the identification of advanced detection and processing methods to limit the presence of pathogens (including hepatitis A and E. coli 0157:H7) in domestic and imported foods.

      `(19) FINANCIAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of providing research, development, or education materials, information, and outreach programs regarding financial risk management strategies for agricultural producers and for cooperatives and other processors and marketers of any agricultural commodity.

      `(20) ORNAMENTAL TROPICAL FISH RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of meeting the needs of commercial producers of ornamental tropical fish and aquatic plants for improvements in the areas of fish reproduction, health, nutrition, predator control, water use, water quality control, and farming technology.

      `(21) SHEEP SCRAPIE RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of investigating the genetic aspects of scrapie in sheep.

      `(22) GYPSY MOTH RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of developing biological control, management, and eradication methods against nonnative insects, including Lymantria dispar (commonly known as the `gypsy moth'), that contribute to significant agricultural, economic, or environmental harm.

      `(23) FORESTRY RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section to develop and distribute new, high-quality, science-based information for the purpose of improving the long-term productivity of forest resources and contributing to forest-based economic development by addressing such issues as--

        `(A) forest land use policies;

        `(B) multiple-use forest management, including wildlife habitat development, improved forest regeneration systems, and timber supply; and

        `(C) improved development, manufacturing, and marketing of forest products.

      `(24) TOMATO SPOTTED WILT VIRUS RESEARCH AND EXTENSION- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of control, management, and eradication of tomato spotted wilt virus.

    `(f) IMPORTED FIRE ANT CONTROL, MANAGEMENT, AND ERADICATION-

      `(1) TASK FORCE- The Secretary shall establish a task force pursuant to subsection (b)(2) regarding the control, management, and eradication of imported fire ants. The Secretary shall solicit and evaluate grant proposals under this subsection in consultation with the task force.

      `(2) INITIAL GRANTS-

        `(A) REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS- The Secretary shall publish a request for proposals for grants for research or demonstration projects related to the control, management, and possible eradication of imported fire ants.

        `(B) SELECTION- Not later than 1 year after the date of publication of the request for proposals, the Secretary shall evaluate the grant proposals submitted in response to the request and may select meritorious research or demonstration projects related to the control, management, and possible eradication of imported fire ants to receive an initial grant under this subsection.

      `(3) SUBSEQUENT GRANTS-

        `(A) EVALUATION OF INITIAL GRANTS- If the Secretary awards grants under paragraph (2)(B), the Secretary shall evaluate all of the research or demonstration projects conducted under the grants for their use as the basis of a national plan for the control, management, and possible eradication of imported fire ants by the Federal Government, State and local governments, and owners and operators of land.

        `(B) SELECTION- On the basis of the evaluation under subparagraph (A), the Secretary may select the projects that the Secretary considers most promising for additional research or demonstration related to preparation of a national plan for the control, management, and possible eradication of imported fire ants. The Secretary shall notify the task force of the projects selected under this subparagraph.

      `(4) SELECTION AND SUBMISSION OF NATIONAL PLAN-

        `(A) EVALUATION OF SUBSEQUENT GRANTS- If the Secretary awards grants under paragraph (3)(B), the Secretary shall evaluate all of the research or demonstration projects conducted under the grants for use as the basis of a national plan for the control, management, and possible eradication of imported fire ants by the Federal Government, State and local governments, and owners and operators of land.

        `(B) SELECTION- On the basis of the evaluation under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall select 1 project funded under paragraph (3)(B), or a combination of those projects, for award of a grant for final preparation of the national plan.

        `(C) SUBMISSION- The Secretary shall submit to Congress the final national plan prepared under subparagraph (B) for the control, management, and possible eradication of imported fire ants.

    `(g) FORMOSAN TERMITE RESEARCH AND ERADICATION-

      `(1) RESEARCH PROGRAM- The Secretary may make competitive research grants under this subsection to regional and multijurisdictional entities, local government planning organizations, and local governments for the purpose of conducting research for the control, management, and possible eradication of Formosan termites in the United States.

      `(2) ERADICATION PROGRAM- The Secretary may enter into cooperative agreements with regional and multijurisdictional entities, local government planning organizations, and local governments for the purposes of--

        `(A) conducting projects for the control, management, and possible eradication of Formosan termites in the United States; and

        `(B) collecting data on the effectiveness of the projects.

      `(3) FUNDING PRIORITY- In allocating funds made available to carry out paragraph (2), the Secretary shall provide a higher priority for regions or locations with the highest historical rates of infestation of Formosan termites.

      `(4) MANAGEMENT COORDINATION- The program management of research grants, cooperative agreements, and projects under this subsection shall be conducted under existing authority in coordination with the national formosan termite management and research demonstration program conducted by the Agricultural Research Service.

    `(h) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS- There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section for each of fiscal years 1999 through 2002.'.

SEC. 243. NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT RESEARCH AND EXTENSION INITIATIVE.

    The Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 is amended by inserting after section 1672 (7 U.S.C. 5925) the following:

`SEC. 1672A. NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT RESEARCH AND EXTENSION INITIATIVE.

    `(a) COMPETITIVE RESEARCH AND EXTENSION GRANTS AUTHORIZED- The Secretary of Agriculture (referred to in this section as the `Secretary') may make competitive grants to support research and extension activities specified in subsection (e). The Secretary shall make the grants in consultation with the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board.

    `(b) ADMINISTRATION-

      `(1) IN GENERAL- Paragraphs (1), (6), (7), and (11) of subsection (b) of the Competitive, Special, and Facilities Research Grant Act (7 U.S.C. 450i) shall apply with respect to the making of grants under this section.

      `(2) USE OF TASK FORCES- To facilitate the making of research and extension grants under this section in the research and extension areas specified in subsection (e), the Secretary may appoint a task force for each such area to make recommendations to the Secretary. The Secretary may not incur costs in excess of $1,000 for any fiscal year in connection with each task force established under this paragraph.

    `(c) MATCHING FUNDS REQUIRED-

      `(1) IN GENERAL- The Secretary shall require the recipient of a grant under this section to provide funds or in-kind support from non-Federal sources in an amount at least equal to the amount provided by the Federal Government.

      `(2) WAIVER AUTHORITY- The Secretary may waive the matching funds requirement specified in paragraph (1) with respect to a research project if the Secretary determines that--

        `(A) the results of the project, while of particular benefit to a specific agricultural commodity, are likely to be applicable to agricultural commodities generally; or

        `(B) the project involves a minor commodity, the project deals with scientifically important research, and the grant recipient is unable to satisfy the matching funds requirement.

    `(d) PARTNERSHIPS ENCOURAGED- Following the completion of a peer review process for grant proposals received under this section, the Secretary may provide a priority to those grant proposals, found in the peer review process to be scientifically meritorious, that involve the cooperation of multiple entities.

    `(e) NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT RESEARCH AND EXTENSION AREAS-

      `(1) ANIMAL WASTE AND ODOR MANAGEMENT- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of--

        `(A) identifying, evaluating, and demonstrating innovative technologies for animal waste management and related air quality management and odor control;

        `(B) investigating the unique microbiology of specific animal wastes, such as swine waste, to develop improved methods to effectively manage air and water quality; and

        `(C) conducting information workshops to disseminate the results of the research.

      `(2) WATER QUALITY AND AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of investigating the impact on aquatic food webs, especially commercially important aquatic species and their habitats, of microorganisms of the genus Pfiesteria and other microorganisms that are a threat to human or animal health.

      `(3) RURAL AND URBAN INTERFACE- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of identifying, evaluating, and demonstrating innovative technologies to be used for animal waste management (including odor control) in rural areas adjacent to urban or suburban areas in connection with waste management activities undertaken in urban or suburban areas.

      `(4) ANIMAL FEED- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of maximizing nutrition management for livestock, while limiting risks, such as mineral bypass, associated with livestock feeding practices.

      `(5) ALTERNATIVE USES OF ANIMAL WASTE- Research and extension grants may be made under this section for the purpose of finding innovative methods and technologies for economic use or disposal of animal waste.

    `(g) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS- There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section for each of fiscal years 1999 through 2002.'.

SEC. 244. ORGANIC AGRICULTURE RESEARCH AND EXTENSION INITIATIVE.

    The Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 is amended by inserting after section 1672A (as added by section 243) the following:

`SEC. 1672B. ORGANIC AGRICULTURE RESEARCH AND EXTENSION INITIATIVE.

    `(a) COMPETITIVE SPECIALIZED RESEARCH AND EXTENSION GRANTS AUTHORIZED- In consultation with the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board, the Secretary of Agriculture (referred to in this section as the `Secretary') may make competitive grants to support research and extension activities regarding organically grown and processed agricultural commodities for the purposes of--

      `(1) facilitating the development of organic agriculture production and processing methods;

      `(2) evaluating the potential economic benefits to producers and processors who use organic methods; and

      `(3) exploring international trade opportunities for organically grown and processed agricultural commodities.

    `(b) GRANT TYPES AND PROCESS, PROHIBITION ON CONSTRUCTION- Paragraphs (1), (6), (7), and (11) of subsection (b) of the Competitive, Special, and Facilities Research Grant Act (7 U.S.C. 450i) shall apply with respect to the making of grants under this section.

    `(c) MATCHING FUNDS REQUIRED-

      `(1) IN GENERAL- The Secretary shall require the recipient of a grant under this section to provide funds or in-kind support from non-Federal sources in an amount at least equal to the amount provided by the Federal Government.

      `(2) WAIVER AUTHORITY- The Secretary may waive the matching funds requirement specified in paragraph (1) with respect to a research project if the Secretary determines that--

        `(A) the results of the project, while of particular benefit to a specified agricultural commodity, are likely to be applicable to agricultural commodities generally; or

        `(B) the project involves a minor commodity, the project deals with scientifically important research, and the grant recipient is unable to satisfy the matching funds requirement.

    `(d) PARTNERSHIPS ENCOURAGED- Following the completion of a peer review process for grant proposals received under this section, the Secretary may provide a priority to those grant proposals, found in the peer review process to be scientifically meritorious, that involve the cooperation of multiple entities.

    `(e) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS- There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section for each of fiscal years 1999 through 2002.'.

SEC. 245. AGRICULTURAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM.

    Section 1673 of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 (7 U.S.C. 5926) is amended--

      (1) in subsection (c)--

        (A) by redesignating paragraphs (1) through (5) as paragraphs (2) through (6), respectively;

        (B) by inserting before paragraph (2) (as so redesignated) the following:

      `(1) A*DEC- The term `A*DEC' means the distance education consortium known as A*DEC.'; and

        (C) by adding at the end the following:

      `(7) SECRETARY- Except as provided in subsection (d)(1), the term `Secretary' means the Secretary of Agriculture, acting through A*DEC.';

      (2) in subsection (d)(1), by striking `The Secretary shall establish a program, to be administered by the Assistant Secretary for Science and Education,' and inserting `The Secretary of Agriculture shall establish a program, to be administered through a grant provided to A*DEC under terms and conditions established by the Secretary of Agriculture,'; and

      (3) in the first sentence of subsection (f)(2), by striking `the Assistant Secretary for Science and Education' and inserting `A*DEC'.

SEC. 246. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM FOR FARMERS WITH DISABILITIES.

    Section 1680 of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 (7 U.S.C. 5933) is amended--

      (1) in subsection (a), by striking paragraph (6);

      (2) in subsection (b)--

        (A) by striking `DISSEMINATION- ' and all that follows through `GENERAL- The' and inserting `DISSEMINATION- The'; and

        (B) by striking paragraph (2); and

      (3) by adding at the end the following:

    `(c) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS-

      `(1) IN GENERAL- Subject to paragraph (2), there is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $6,000,000 for each of fiscal years 1999 through 2002.

      `(2) NATIONAL GRANT- Not more than 15 percent of the amounts made available under paragraph (1) for a fiscal year shall be used to carry out subsection (b).'.

Subtitle E--Other Laws

SEC. 251. EQUITY IN EDUCATIONAL LAND-GRANT STATUS ACT OF 1994.

    (a) DEFINITION OF 1994 INSTITUTIONS- Section 532 of the Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994 (Public Law 103-382; 7 U.S.C. 301 note) is amended by adding at the end the following:

      `(30) Little Priest Tribal College.'.

    (b) ACCREDITATION- Section 533(a) of the Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994 (Public Law 103-382; 7 U.S.C. 301 note) is amended by adding at the end the following:

      `(3) ACCREDITATION- To receive funding under sections 534 and 535, a 1994 Institution shall certify to the Secretary that the 1994 Institution--

        `(A) is accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency or association determined by the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Education, to be a reliable authority regarding the quality of training offered; or

        `(B) is making progress toward the accreditation, as determined by the nationally recognized accrediting agency or association.'.

    (c) RESEARCH GRANTS- The Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994 (Public Law 103-382; 7 U.S.C. 301 note) is amended by adding at the end the following:

`SEC. 536. RESEARCH GRANTS.

    `(a) RESEARCH GRANTS AUTHORIZED- The Secretary of Agriculture may make grants under this section, on the basis of a competitive application process (and in accordance with such regulations as the Secretary may promulgate), to a 1994 Institution to assist the Institution to conduct agricultural research that addresses high priority concerns of tribal, national, or multistate significance.

    `(b) REQUIREMENTS- Grant applications submitted under this section shall certify that the research to be conducted will be performed under a cooperative agreement with at least 1 other land-grant college or university (exclusive of another 1994 Institution).

    `(c) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS- There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section for each of fiscal years 1999 through 2002. Amounts appropriated shall remain available until expended.'.

SEC. 252. FUND FOR RURAL AMERICA.

    Section 793(b) of the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (7 U.S.C. 2204f(b)) is amended by striking paragraph (1) and inserting the following:

      `(1) IN GENERAL- On October 1, 1998, and each October 1 thereafter through October 1, 2002, out of any funds in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the Secretary of the Treasury shall transfer $60,000,000 to the Account.'.

SEC. 253. FOREST AND RANGELAND RENEWABLE RESOURCES RESEARCH.

    (a) FINDINGS- Section 2 of the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Research Act of 1978 (16 U.S.C. 1641) is amended by striking `SEC. 2.' and subsection (a) and inserting the following:

`SEC. 2. FINDINGS AND PURPOSE.

    `(a) FINDINGS- Congress finds the following:

      `(1) Forests and rangeland, and the resources of forests and rangeland, are of strategic economic and ecological importance to the United States, and the Federal Government has an important and substantial role in ensuring the continued health, productivity, and sustainability of the forests and rangeland of the United States.

      `(2) Over 75 percent of the productive commercial forest land in the United States is privately owned, with some 60 percent owned by small nonindustrial private owners. These 10,000,000 nonindustrial private owners are critical to providing both commodity and noncommodity values to the citizens of the United States.

      `(3) The National Forest System manages only 17 percent of the commercial timberland of the United States, with over half of the standing softwoods inventory located on that land. Dramatic changes in Federal agency policy during the early 1990's have significantly curtailed the management of this vast timber resource, causing abrupt shifts in the supply of timber from public to private ownership. As a result of these shifts in supply, some 60 percent of total wood production in the United States is now coming from private forest land in the southern United States.

      `(4) At the same time that pressures are building for the removal of even more land from commercial production, the Federal Government is significantly reducing its commitment to productivity-related research regarding forests and rangeland, which is critically needed by the private sector for the sustained management of remaining available timber and forage resources for the benefit of all species.

      `(5) Uncertainty over the availability of the United States timber supply, increasing regulatory burdens, and the lack of Federal Government support for research is causing domestic wood and paper producers to move outside the United States to find reliable sources of wood supplies, which in turn results in a worsening of the United States trade balance, the loss of employment and infrastructure investments, and an increased risk of infestations of exotic pests and diseases from imported wood products.

      `(6) Wood and paper producers in the United States are being challenged not only by shifts in Federal Government policy, but also by international competition from tropical countries where growth rates of trees far exceed those in the United States. Wood production per acre will need to quadruple from 1996 levels for the United States forestry sector to remain internationally competitive on an ever decreasing forest land base.

      `(7) Better and more frequent forest inventorying and analysis is necessary to identify productivity-related forestry research needs and to provide forest managers with the current data necessary to make timely and effective management decisions.'.

    (b) HIGH PRIORITY FORESTRY AND RANGELAND RESEARCH AND EDUCATION- Section 3 of the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Research Act of 1978 (16 U.S.C. 1642) is amended by striking subsection (d) and inserting the following:

    `(d) HIGH PRIORITY FORESTRY AND RANGELAND RESEARCH AND EDUCATION-

      `(1) IN GENERAL- The Secretary may conduct, support, and cooperate in forestry and rangeland research and education that is of the highest priority to the United States and to users of public and private forest land and rangeland in the United States.

      `(2) PRIORITIES- The research and education priorities include the following:

        `(A) The biology of forest organisms and rangeland organisms.

        `(B) Functional characteristics and cost-effective management of forest and rangeland ecosystems.

        `(C) Interactions between humans and forests and rangeland.

        `(D) Wood and forage as a raw material.

        `(E) International trade, competition, and cooperation.

      `(3) NORTHEASTERN STATES RESEARCH COOPERATIVE- The Secretary may cooperate with the northeastern States of New Hampshire, New York, Maine, and Vermont, land-grant colleges and universities of those States, natural resources and forestry schools of those States, other Federal agencies, and other interested persons in those States to coordinate and improve ecological and economic research relating to agricultural research, extension, and education, including--

        `(A) research on ecosystem health, forest management, product development, economics, and related fields;

        `(B) research to assist those States and landowners in those States to achieve sustainable forest management;

        `(C) technology transfer to the wood products industry of technologies that promote efficient processing, pollution prevention, and energy conservation;

        `(D) dissemination of existing and new information to landowners, public and private resource managers, State forest citizen advisory committees, and the general public through professional associations, publications, and other information clearinghouse activities; and

        `(E) analysis of strategies for the protection of areas of outstanding ecological significance or high biological diversity, and strategies for the provision of important recreational opportunities and traditional uses, including strategies for areas identified through State land conservation planning processes.'.

    (c) FOREST INVENTORY AND ANALYSIS- Section 3 of the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Research Act of 1978 (16 U.S.C. 1642) is amended by adding at the end the following:

    `(e) FOREST INVENTORY AND ANALYSIS-

      `(1) PROGRAM REQUIRED- In compliance with other applicable provisions of law, the Secretary shall establish a program to inventory and analyze, in a timely manner, public and private forests and their resources in the United States.

      `(2) ANNUAL STATE INVENTORY-

        `(A) IN GENERAL- Not later than the end of each full fiscal year beginning after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall prepare for each State, in cooperation with the State forester for the State, an inventory of forests and their resources in the State.

        `(B) SAMPLE PLOTS- For purposes of preparing the inventory for a State, the Secretary shall measure annually 20 percent of all sample plots that are included in the inventory program for that State.

        `(C) COMPILATION OF INVENTORY- On completion of the inventory for a year, the Secretary shall make available to the public a compilation of all data collected for that year from measurements of sample plots as well as any analysis made of the samples.

      `(3) 5-YEAR REPORTS- Not more often than every 5 full fiscal years after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall prepare, publish, and make available to the public a report, prepared in cooperation with State foresters, that--

        `(A) contains a description of each State inventory of forests and their resources, incorporating all sample plot measurements conducted during the 5 years covered by the report;

        `(B) displays and analyzes on a nationwide basis the results of the annual reports required by paragraph (2); and

        `(C) contains an analysis of forest health conditions and trends over the previous 2 decades, with an emphasis on such conditions and trends during the period subsequent to the immediately preceding report under this paragraph.

      `(4) NATIONAL STANDARDS AND DEFINITIONS- To ensure uniform and consistent data collection for all forest land that is publicly or privately owned and for each State, the Secretary shall develop, in consultation with State foresters and Federal land management agencies not under the jurisdiction of the Secretary, and publish national standards and definitions to be applied in inventorying and analyzing forests and their resources under this subsection. The standards shall include a core set of variables to be measured on all sample plots under paragraph (2) and a standard set of tables to be included in the reports under paragraph (3).

      `(5) PROTECTION FOR PRIVATE PROPERTY RIGHTS- The Secretary shall obtain authorization from property owners prior to collecting data from sample plots located on private property pursuant to paragraphs (2) and (3).

      `(6) STRATEGIC PLAN- Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall prepare and submit to Congress a strategic plan to implement and carry out this subsection, including the annual updates required by paragraph (2) and the reports required by paragraph (3), that shall describe in detail--

        `(A) the financial resources required to implement and carry out this subsection, including the identification of any resources required in excess of the amounts provided for forest inventorying and analysis in recent appropriations Acts;

        `(B) the personnel necessary to implement and carry out this subsection, including any personnel in addition to personnel currently performing inventorying and analysis functions;

        `(C) the organization and procedures necessary to implement and carry out this subsection, including proposed coordination with Federal land management agencies and State foresters;

        `(D) the schedules for annual sample plot measurements in each State inventory required by paragraph (2) within the first 5-year interval after the date of enactment of this subsection;

        `(E) the core set of variables to be measured in each sample plot under paragraph (2) and the standard set of tables to be used in each State and national report under paragraph (3); and

        `(F) the process for employing, in coordination with the Secretary of Energy and the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, remote sensing, global positioning systems, and other advanced technologies to carry out this subsection, and the subsequent use of the technologies.'.

    (d) FORESTRY AND RANGELAND COMPETITIVE RESEARCH GRANTS- Section 5 of the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Research Act of 1978 (16 U.S.C. 1644) is amended--

      (1) by striking the section heading and `SEC. 5.' and inserting the following:

      `SEC. 5. FORESTRY AND RANGELAND COMPETITIVE RESEARCH GRANTS.

    `(a) COMPETITIVE GRANT AUTHORITY- '; and

      (2) by adding at the end the following:

    `(b) EMPHASIS ON CERTAIN HIGH PRIORITY FORESTRY RESEARCH- The Secretary may use up to 5 percent of the amounts made available for research under section 3 to make competitive grants regarding forestry research in the high priority research areas identified under section 3(d).

    `(c) EMPHASIS ON CERTAIN HIGH PRIORITY RANGELAND RESEARCH- The Secretary may use up to 5 percent of the amounts made available for research under section 3 to make competitive grants regarding rangeland research in the high priority research areas identified under section 3(d).

    `(d) PRIORITIES- In making grants under subsections (b) and (c), the Secretary shall give priority to research proposals under which--

      `(1) the proposed research will be collaborative research organized through a center of scientific excellence;

      `(2) the applicant agrees to provide matching funds (in the form of direct funding or in-kind support) in an amount equal to not less than 50 percent of the grant amount; and

      `(3) the proposed research will be conducted as part of an existing private and public partnership or cooperative research effort and involves several interested research partners.'.

TITLE III--EXTENSION OR REPEAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND EDUCATION AUTHORITIES

SEC. 301. EXTENSIONS.

    (a) NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND TEACHING POLICY ACT OF 1977- The National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 is amended--

      (1) in subsection (l) of section 1417 (7 U.S.C. 3152) (as redesignated by section 223(1)), by striking `1997' and inserting `2002';

      (2) in section 1419(d) (7 U.S.C. 3154(d)), by striking `1997' and inserting `2002';

      (3) in section 1419A(d) (7 U.S.C. 3155(d)), by striking `fiscal years 1996 and 1997' and inserting `each of fiscal years 1996 through 2002';

      (4) in section 1424(d) (7 U.S.C. 3174(d)), by striking `fiscal years 1996 and 1997' and inserting `each of fiscal years 1996 through 2002';

      (5) in section 1424A(d) (7 U.S.C. 3174a(d)), by striking `fiscal year 1997' and inserting `each of fiscal years 1997 through 2002';

      (6) in section 1425(c)(3) (7 U.S.C. 3175(c)(3)), by striking `and 1997' and inserting `through 2002';

      (7) in the first sentence of section 1433(a) (7 U.S.C. 3195(a)), by striking `1997' and inserting `2002';

      (8) in section 1434(a) (7 U.S.C. 3196(a)), by striking `1997' and inserting `2002';

      (9) in section 1447(b) (7 U.S.C. 3222b(b)), by striking `and 1997' and inserting `through 2002';

      (10) in section 1448 (7 U.S.C. 3222c)--

        (A) in subsection (a)(1), by striking `and 1997' and inserting `through 2002'; and

        (B) in subsection (f), by striking `1997' and inserting `2002';

      (11) in section 1455(c) (7 U.S.C. 3241(c)), by striking `fiscal year 1997' and inserting `each of fiscal years 1997 through 2002';

      (12) in section 1463 (7 U.S.C. 3311), by striking `1997' each place it appears in subsections (a) and (b) and inserting `2002';

      (13) in section 1464 (7 U.S.C. 3312), by striking `1997' and inserting `2002';

      (14) in section 1473D(a) (7 U.S.C. 3319d(a)), by striking `1997' and inserting `2002';

      (15) in the first sentence of section 1477 (7 U.S.C. 3324), by striking `1997' and inserting `2002'; and

      (16) in section 1483(a) (7 U.S.C. 3336(a)), by striking `1997' and inserting `2002'.

    (b) FOOD, AGRICULTURE, CONSERVATION, AND TRADE ACT OF 1990- The Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 is amended--

      (1) in section 1635(b) (7 U.S.C. 5844(b)), by striking `1997' and inserting `2002';

      (2) in section 1673(h) (7 U.S.C. 5926(h)), by striking `1997' and inserting `2002';

      (3) in section 2381(e) (7 U.S.C. 3125b(e)), by striking `1997' and inserting `2002'.

    (c) CRITICAL AGRICULTURAL MATERIALS ACT- Section 16(a) of the Critical Agricultural Materials Act (7 U.S.C. 178n(a)) is amended by striking `1997' and inserting `2002'.

    (d) RESEARCH FACILITIES ACT- Section 6(a) of the Research Facilities Act (7 U.S.C. 390d(a)) is amended by striking `fiscal years 1996 and 1997' and inserting `each of fiscal years 1996 through 2002'.

    (e) NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND TEACHING POLICY ACT AMENDMENTS OF 1985- Section 1431 of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act Amendments of 1985 (Public Law 99-198; 99 Stat. 1556) is amended by striking `1997' and inserting `2002'.

    (f) COMPETITIVE, SPECIAL, AND FACILITIES RESEARCH GRANT ACT- Subsection (b)(10) of the Competitive, Special, and Facilities Research Grant Act (7 U.S.C. 450i(b)(10)) is amended by striking `1997' and inserting `2002'.

    (g) EQUITY IN EDUCATIONAL LAND-GRANT STATUS ACT OF 1994- Sections 533(b) and 535 of the Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994 (Public Law 103-382; 7 U.S.C. 301 note) are amended by striking `2000' each place it appears and inserting `2002'.

    (h) RENEWABLE RESOURCES EXTENSION ACT OF 1978- Section 6 of the Renewable Resources Extension Act of 1978 (16 U.S.C. 1675) is amended in the first sentence by striking `the fiscal year ending September 30, 1988,' and all that follows through the period at the end and inserting `each of fiscal years 1987 through 2002.'.

    (i) NATIONAL AQUACULTURE ACT OF 1980- Section 10 of the National Aquaculture Act of 1980 (16 U.S.C. 2809) is amended by striking `the fiscal years 1991, 1992, and 1993' each place it appears and inserting `fiscal years 1991 through 2002'.

SEC. 302. REPEALS.

    (a) NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND TEACHING POLICY ACT OF 1977- Section 1476 of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3323) is repealed.

    (b) NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND TEACHING POLICY ACT AMENDMENTS OF 1981- Subsection (b) of section 1432 of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act Amendments of 1981 (Public Law 97-98; 7 U.S.C. 3222 note) is repealed.

    (c) FOOD, AGRICULTURE, CONSERVATION, AND TRADE ACT OF 1990- Subtitle G of title XIV and sections 1670 and 1675 of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 (7 U.S.C. 5501 et seq., 5923, 5928) are repealed.

    (d) FEDERAL AGRICULTURE IMPROVEMENT AND REFORM ACT OF 1996- Subtitle E of title VIII of the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-127; 110 Stat. 1184) is repealed.

TITLE IV--NEW AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND EDUCATION INITIATIVES

SEC. 401. INITIATIVE FOR FUTURE AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SYSTEMS.

    (a) TREASURY ACCOUNT- There is established in the Treasury of the United States an account to be known as the Initiative for Future Agriculture and Food Systems (referred to in this section as the `Account') to provide funds for activities authorized under this section.

    (b) FUNDING-

      (1) IN GENERAL- On October 1, 1998, and each October 1 thereafter through October 1, 2002, out of any funds in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the Secretary of the Treasury shall transfer $120,000,000 to the Account.

      (2) ENTITLEMENT- The Secretary of Agriculture--

        (A) shall be entitled to receive the funds transferred to the Account under paragraph (1);

        (B) shall accept the funds; and

        (C) shall use the funds to carry out this section.

    (c) PURPOSES-

      (1) CRITICAL EMERGING ISSUES- The Secretary shall use the funds in the Account--

        (A) subject to paragraph (2), for research, extension, and education grants (referred to in this section as `grants') to address critical emerging agricultural issues related to--

          (i) future food production;

          (ii) environmental quality and natural resource management; or

          (iii) farm income; and

        (B) for activities carried out under the Alternative Agricultural Research and Commercialization Act of 1990 (7 U.S.C. 5901 et seq.).

      (2) PRIORITY MISSION AREAS- In making grants under this section, the Secretary, in consultation with the Advisory Board, shall address priority mission areas related to--

        (A) agricultural genome;

        (B) food safety, food technology, and human nutrition;

        (C) new and alternative uses and production of agricultural commodities and products;

        (D) agricultural biotechnology;

        (E) natural resource management, including precision agriculture; and

        (F) farm efficiency and profitability, including the viability and competitiveness of small- and medium-sized dairy, livestock, crop, and other commodity operations.

    (d) ELIGIBLE GRANTEES- The Secretary may make a grant under this section to--

      (1) a Federal research agency;

      (2) a national laboratory;

      (3) a college or university or a research foundation maintained by a college or university; or

      (4) a private research organization with an established and demonstrated capacity to perform research or technology transfer.

    (e) SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS-

      (1) SMALLER INSTITUTIONS- The Secretary may award grants under this section in a manner that ensures that the faculty of small and mid-sized institutions that have not previously been successful in obtaining competitive grants under subsection (b) of the Competitive, Special, and Facilities Research Grant Act (7 U.S.C. 450i(b)) receive a portion of the grants under this section.

      (2) PRIORITIES- In making grants under this section, the Secretary shall provide a higher priority to--

        (A) a project that is multistate, multi-institutional, or multidisciplinary; or

        (B) a project that integrates agricultural research, extension, and education.

    (f) ADMINISTRATION-

      (1) IN GENERAL- In making grants under this section, the Secretary shall--

        (A) seek and accept proposals for grants;

        (B) determine the relevance and merit of proposals through a system of peer review in accordance with section 103;

        (C) award grants on the basis of merit, quality, and relevance to advancing the purposes and priority mission areas established under subsection (c); and

        (D) solicit and consider input from persons who conduct or use agricultural research, extension, or education in accordance with section 102(b).

      (2) COMPETITIVE BASIS- A grant under this section shall be awarded on a competitive basis.

      (3) TERM- A grant under this section shall have a term that does not exceed 5 years.

      (4) MATCHING FUNDS- As a condition of making a grant under this section, the Secretary shall require the funding of the grant be matched with equal matching funds from a non-Federal source if the grant is--

        (A) for applied research that is commodity-specific; and

        (B) not of national scope.

      (5) DELEGATION- The Secretary shall administer this section through the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service of the Department. The Secretary may establish 1 or more institutes to carry out all or part of the activities authorized under this section.

      (6) AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS- Funds for grants under this section shall be available to the Secretary for obligation for a 2-year period.

      (7) ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS- The Secretary may use not more than 4 percent of the funds made available for grants under this section for administrative costs incurred by the Secretary in carrying out this section.

      (8) BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES- Funds made available for grants under this section shall not be used for the construction of a new building or facility or the acquisition, expansion, remodeling, or alteration of an existing building or facility (including site grading and improvement and architect fees).

SEC. 402. PARTNERSHIPS FOR HIGH-VALUE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT QUALITY RESEARCH.

    (a) DEFINITION OF ELIGIBLE PARTNERSHIP- In this section, the term `eligible partnership' means a partnership consisting of a land-grant college or university and other entities specified in subsection (c)(1) that satisfies the eligibility criteria specified in subsection (c).

    (b) ESTABLISHMENT OF PARTNERSHIPS BY GRANT- The Secretary of Agriculture may make competitive grants to an eligible partnership to coordinate and manage research and extension activities to enhance the quality of high-value agricultural products.

    (c) CRITERIA FOR AN ELIGIBLE PARTNERSHIP-

      (1) PRIMARY INSTITUTIONS IN PARTNERSHIP- The primary institution involved in an eligible partnership shall be a land-grant college or university, acting in partnership with other colleges or universities, nonprofit research and development entities, and Federal laboratories.

      (2) PRIORITIZATION OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES- An eligible partnership shall prioritize research and extension activities in order to--

        (A) enhance the competitiveness of United States agricultural products;

        (B) increase exports of such products; and

        (C) substitute such products for imported products.

      (3) COORDINATION- An eligible partnership shall coordinate among the entities comprising the partnership the activities supported by the eligible partnership, including the provision of mechanisms for sharing resources between institutions and laboratories and the coordination of public and private sector partners to maximize cost-effectiveness.

    (d) TYPES OF RESEARCH AND EXTENSION ACTIVITIES- Research or extension supported by an eligible partnership may address the full spectrum of production, processing, packaging, transportation, and marketing issues related to a high-value agricultural product. Such issues include--

      (1) environmentally responsible--

        (A) pest management alternatives and biotechnology;

        (B) sustainable farming methods; and

        (C) soil conservation and enhanced resource management;

      (2) genetic research to develop improved agricultural-based products;

      (3) refinement of field production practices and technology to improve quality, yield, and production efficiencies;

      (4) processing and package technology to improve product quality, stability, or flavor intensity;

      (5) marketing research regarding consumer perceptions and preferences;

      (6) economic research, including industry characteristics, growth, and competitive analysis; and

      (7) research to facilitate diversified, value-added enterprises in rural areas.

    (e) ELEMENTS OF GRANT MAKING PROCESS-

      (1) PERIOD OF GRANT- The Secretary may award a grant under this section for a period not to exceed 5 years.

      (2) PREFERENCES- In making grants under this section, the Secretary shall provide a preference to proposals that--

        (A) demonstrate linkages with--

          (i) agencies of the Department;

          (ii) other related Federal research laboratories and agencies;

          (iii) colleges and universities; and

          (iv) private industry; and

        (B) guarantee matching funds in excess of the amounts required by paragraph (3).

      (3) MATCHING FUNDS- An eligible partnership shall contribute an amount of non-Federal funds for the operation of the partnership that is at least equal to the amount of grant funds received by the partnership under this section.

    (f) LIMITATION ON USE OF GRANT FUNDS- Funds provided under this section may not be used for the planning, repair, rehabilitation, acquisition, or construction of a building or facility.

    (g) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS- There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section for each of fiscal years 1999 through 2002.

SEC. 403. PRECISION AGRICULTURE.

    (a) DEFINITIONS- In this section:

      (1) AGRICULTURAL INPUTS- The term `agricultural inputs' includes all farm management, agronomic, and field-applied agricultural production inputs, such as machinery, labor, time, fuel, irrigation water, commercial nutrients, feed stuffs, veterinary drugs and vaccines, livestock waste, crop protection chemicals, agronomic data and information, application and management services, seed, and other inputs used in agricultural production.

      (2) ELIGIBLE ENTITY- The term `eligible entity' means--

        (A) a State agricultural experiment station;

        (B) a college or university;

        (C) a research institution or organization;

        (D) a Federal or State government entity or agency;

        (E) a national laboratory;

        (F) a private organization or corporation;

        (G) an agricultural producer or other land manager; or

        (H) a precision agriculture partnership referred to in subsection (g).

      (3) PRECISION AGRICULTURE- The term `precision agriculture' means an integrated information- and production-based farming system that is designed to increase long-term, site-specific, and whole farm production efficiencies, productivity, and profitability while minimizing unintended impacts on wildlife and the environment by--

        (A) combining agricultural sciences, agricultural inputs and practices, agronomic production databases, and precision agriculture technologies to efficiently manage agronomic and livestock production systems;

        (B) gathering on-farm information pertaining to the variation and interaction of site-specific spatial and temporal factors affecting crop and livestock production;

        (C) integrating such information with appropriate data derived from field scouting, remote sensing, and other precision agriculture technologies in a timely manner in order to facilitate on-farm decisionmaking; or

        (D) using such information to prescribe and deliver site-specific application of agricultural inputs and management practices in agricultural production systems.

      (4) PRECISION AGRICULTURE TECHNOLOGIES- The term `precision agriculture technologies' includes--

        (A) instrumentation and techniques ranging from sophisticated sensors and software systems to manual sampling and data collection tools that measure, record, and manage spatial and temporal data;

        (B) technologies for searching out and assembling information necessary for sound agricultural production decisionmaking;

        (C) open systems technologies for data networking and processing that produce valued systems for farm management decisionmaking; or

        (D) machines that deliver information-based management practices.

      (5) SYSTEMS RESEARCH- The term `systems research' means an integrated, coordinated, and iterative investigative process that involves--

        (A) the multiple interacting components and aspects of precision agriculture systems, including synthesis of new knowledge regarding the physical-chemical-biological processes and complex interactions of the systems with cropping, livestock production practices, and natural resource systems;

        (B) precision agriculture technologies development and implementation;

        (C) data and information collection and interpretation;

        (D) production-scale planning;

        (E) production-scale implementation; and

        (F) farm production efficiencies, productivity, and profitability.

    (b) GRANTS AUTHORIZED-

      (1) IN GENERAL- The Secretary of Agriculture may make competitive grants, for periods not to exceed 5 years, to eligible entities to conduct research, education, or information dissemination projects for the development and advancement of precision agriculture.

      (2) PRIVATE SECTOR FINANCING- A grant under this section shall be used to support only a project that the Secretary determines is unlikely to be financed by the private sector.

      (3) CONSULTATION WITH ADVISORY BOARD- The Secretary shall make grants under this section in consultation with the Advisory Board.

    (c) PURPOSES OF PROJECTS- A research, education, or information dissemination project supported by a grant under this section shall address 1 or more of the following purposes:

      (1) The study and promotion of components of precision agriculture technologies using a systems research approach designed to increase long-term site-specific and whole-farm production efficiencies, productivity, and profitability.

      (2) The improvement in the understanding of agronomic systems, including, soil, water, land cover (including grazing land), pest management systems, and meteorological variability.

      (3) The provision of training and educational programs for State cooperative extension services agents, and other professionals involved in the production and transfer of integrated precision agriculture technology.

      (4) The development, demonstration, and dissemination of information regarding precision agriculture technologies and systems and the potential costs and benefits of precision agriculture as it relates to--

        (A) increased long-term farm production efficiencies, productivity, and profitability;

        (B) the maintenance of the environment;

        (C) improvements in international trade; and

        (D) an integrated program of education for agricultural producers and consumers, including family owned and operated farms.

      (5) The promotion of systems research and education projects focusing on the integration of the multiple aspects of precision agriculture, including development, production-scale implementation, and farm production efficiencies, productivity, and profitability.

      (6) The study of whether precision agriculture technologies are applicable and accessible to small and medium-size farms and the study of methods of improving the applicability of precision agriculture technologies to those farms.

    (d) GRANT PRIORITIES- In making grants to eligible entities under this section, the Secretary, in consultation with the Advisory Board, shall give priority to research, education, or information dissemination projects designed to accomplish the following:

      (1) Evaluate the use of precision agriculture technologies using a systems research approach to increase long-term site-specific and whole-farm production efficiencies, productivity, and profitability.

      (2) Integrate research, education, and information dissemination components in a practical and readily available manner so that the findings of the project will be made readily usable by agricultural producers.

      (3) Demonstrate the efficient use of agricultural inputs, rather than the uniform reduction in the use of agricultural inputs.

      (4) Maximize the involvement and cooperation of precision agriculture producers, certified crop advisers, State cooperative extension services agents, agricultural input machinery, product and service providers, nonprofit organizations, agribusinesses, veterinarians, land-grant colleges and universities, and Federal agencies in precision agriculture systems research projects involving on-farm research, education, and dissemination of precision agriculture information.

      (5) Maximize collaboration with multiple agencies and other partners, including through leveraging of funds and resources.

    (e) MATCHING FUNDS- The amount of a grant under this section to an eligible entity (other than a Federal agency) may not exceed the amount that the eligible entity makes available out of non-Federal funds for precision agriculture research and for the establishment and maintenance of facilities necessary for conducting precision agriculture research.

    (f) RESERVATION OF FUNDS FOR EDUCATION AND INFORMATION DISSEMINATION PROJECTS- Of the funds made available for grants under this section, the Secretary shall reserve a portion of the funds for grants for projects regarding precision agriculture related to education or information dissemination.

    (g) PRECISION AGRICULTURE PARTNERSHIPS- In carrying out this section, the Secretary, in consultation with the Advisory Board, shall encourage the establishment of appropriate multistate and national partnerships or consortia between--

      (1) land-grant colleges and universities, State agricultural experiment stations, State cooperative extension services, other colleges and universities with demonstrable expertise regarding precision agriculture, agencies of the Department, national laboratories, agribusinesses, agricultural equipment and input manufacturers and retailers, certified crop advisers, commodity organizations, veterinarians, other Federal or State government entities and agencies, or nonagricultural industries and nonprofit organizations with demonstrable expertise regarding precision agriculture; and

      (2) agricultural producers or other land managers.

    (h) LIMITATION REGARDING FACILITIES- A grant made under this section may not be used for the planning, repair, rehabilitation, acquisition, or construction of a building or facility.

    (i) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS-

      (1) IN GENERAL- There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section for each of fiscal years 1999 through 2002, of which, for each fiscal year--

        (A) not less than 30 percent shall be available to make grants for research to be conducted by multidisciplinary teams; and

        (B) not less than 40 percent shall be available to make grants for research to be conducted by eligible entities conducting systems research directly applicable to producers and agricultural production systems.

      (2) AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS- Funds made available under paragraph (1) shall be available for obligation for a 2-year period beginning on October 1 of the fiscal year for which the funds are made available.

SEC. 404. BIOBASED PRODUCTS.

    (a) DEFINITION OF BIOBASED PRODUCT- In this section, the term `biobased product' means a product suitable for food or nonfood use that is derived in whole or in part from renewable agricultural and forestry materials.

    (b) COORDINATION OF BIOBASED PRODUCT ACTIVITIES- The Secretary of Agriculture shall--

      (1) coordinate the research, technical expertise, economic information, and market information resources and activities of the Department to develop, commercialize, and promote the use of biobased products;

      (2) solicit input from private sector persons who produce, or are interested in producing, biobased products;

      (3) provide a centralized contact point for advice and technical assistance for promising and innovative biobased products; and

      (4) submit an annual report to Congress describing the coordinated research, marketing, and commercialization activities of the Department relating to biobased products.

    (c) COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR BIOBASED PRODUCTS-

      (1) AGREEMENTS AUTHORIZED- The Secretary may enter into cooperative agreements with private entities described in subsection (d), under which the facilities and technical expertise of the Agricultural Research Service may be made available to operate pilot plants and other large-scale preparation facilities for the purpose of bringing technologies necessary for the development and commercialization of new biobased products to the point of practical application.

      (2) DESCRIPTION OF COOPERATIVE ACTIVITIES- Cooperative activities may include--

        (A) research on potential environmental impacts of a biobased product;

        (B) methods to reduce the cost of manufacturing a biobased product; and

        (C) other appropriate research.

    (d) ELIGIBLE PARTNERS- The following entities shall be eligible to enter into a cooperative agreement under subsection (c):

      (1) A party that has entered into a cooperative research and development agreement with the Secretary under section 12 of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3710a).

      (2) A recipient of funding from the Alternative Agricultural Research and Commercialization Corporation established under section 1658 of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 (7 U.S.C. 5902).

      (3) A recipient of funding from the Biotechnology Research and Development Corporation.

      (4) A recipient of funding from the Secretary under a Small Business Innovation Research Program established under section 9 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 638).

    (e) PILOT PROJECT- The Secretary, acting through the Agricultural Research Service, may establish and carry out a pilot project under which grants are provided, on a competitive basis, to scientists of the Agricultural Research Service to--

      (1) encourage innovative and collaborative science; and

      (2) during each of fiscal years 1999 through 2001, develop biobased products with promising commercial potential.

    (f) SOURCE OF FUNDS-

      (1) IN GENERAL- Except as provided in paragraph (2), to carry out this section, the Secretary may use--

        (A) funds appropriated to carry out this section; and

        (B) funds otherwise available for cooperative research and development agreements under the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3701 et seq.).

      (2) EXCEPTION- The Secretary may not use funds referred to in paragraph (1)(B) to carry out subsection (e).

    (g) SALE OF DEVELOPED PRODUCTS- For the purpose of determining the market potential for new biobased products produced at a pilot plant or other large-scale preparation facility under a cooperative agreement under this section, the Secretary shall authorize the private partner or partners to the agreement to sell the products.

    (h) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS- There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section for each of fiscal years 1999 through 2002.

SEC. 405. THOMAS JEFFERSON INITIATIVE FOR CROP DIVERSIFICATION.

    (a) INITIATIVE REQUIRED- The Secretary of Agriculture shall provide for a research initiative (to be known as the `Thomas Jefferson Initiative for Crop Diversification') for the purpose of conducting research and development, in cooperation with other public and private entities, on the production and marketing of new and nontraditional crops needed to strengthen and diversify the agricultural production base of the United States.

    (b) RESEARCH AND EDUCATION EFFORTS- The initiative shall include research and education efforts regarding new and nontraditional crops designed--

      (1) to identify and overcome agronomic barriers to profitable production;

      (2) to identify and overcome other production and marketing barriers; and

      (3) to develop processing and utilization technologies for new and nontraditional crops.

    (c) PURPOSES- The purposes of the initiative are--

      (1) to develop a focused program of research and development at the regional and national levels to overcome barriers to the development of--

        (A) new crop opportunities for agricultural producers; and

        (B) related value-added enterprises in rural communities; and

      (2) to ensure a broad-based effort encompassing research, education, market development, and support of entrepreneurial activity leading to increased agricultural diversification.

    (d) ESTABLISHMENT OF INITIATIVE- The Secretary shall coordinate the initiative through a nonprofit center or institute that will coordinate research and education programs in cooperation with other public and private entities. The Secretary shall administer research and education grants made under this section.

    (e) REGIONAL EMPHASIS-

      (1) REQUIRED- The Secretary shall support development of multistate regional efforts in crop diversification.

      (2) SITE-SPECIFIC CROP DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS- Of funding made available to carry out the initiative, not less than 50 percent shall be used for regional efforts centered at colleges and universities in order to facilitate site-specific crop development efforts.

    (f) ELIGIBLE GRANTEE- The Secretary may award funds under this section to colleges or universities, nonprofit organizations, public agencies, or individuals.

    (g) ADMINISTRATION-

      (1) GRANTS AND CONTRACTS- Grants awarded through the initiative shall be selected on a competitive basis.

      (2) PRIVATE BUSINESSES- The recipient of a grant may use a portion of the grant funds for standard contracts with private businesses, such as for test processing of a new or nontraditional crop.

      (3) TERMS- The term of a grant awarded through the initiative may not exceed 5 years.

      (4) MATCHING FUNDS- The Secretary shall require the recipient of a grant awarded through the initiative to contribute an amount of funds from non-Federal sources that is at least equal to the amount provided by the Federal Government.

    (h) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS- There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section for each of fiscal years 1999 through 2002.

SEC. 406. INTEGRATED RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION COMPETITIVE GRANTS PROGRAM.

    (a) PURPOSE- It is the purpose of this section to authorize the Secretary of Agriculture to establish an integrated research, education, and extension competitive grant program to provide funding for integrated, multifunctional agricultural research, extension, and education activities.

    (b) COMPETITIVE GRANTS AUTHORIZED- Subject to the availability of appropriations to carry out this section, the Secretary may award grants to colleges and universities (as defined in section 1404 of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3103)) on a competitive basis for integrated agricultural research, education, and extension projects in accordance with this section.

    (c) CRITERIA FOR GRANTS- Grants under this section shall be awarded to address priorities in United States agriculture, determined by the Secretary in consultation with the Advisory Board, that involve integrated research, extension, and education activities.

    (d) MATCHING OF FUNDS-

      (1) GENERAL REQUIREMENT- If a grant under this section provides a particular benefit to a specific agricultural commodity, the Secretary shall require the recipient of the grant to provide funds or in-kind support to match the amount of funds provided by the Secretary in the grant.

      (2) WAIVER- The Secretary may waive the matching funds requirement specified in paragraph (1) with respect to a grant if the Secretary determines that--

        (A) the results of the project, while of particular benefit to a specific agricultural commodity, are likely to be applicable to agricultural commodities generally; or

        (B) the project involves a minor commodity, the project deals with scientifically important research, and the grant recipient is unable to satisfy the matching funds requirement.

    (e) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS- There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section for each of fiscal years 1999 through 2002.

SEC. 407. COORDINATED PROGRAM OF RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND EDUCATION TO IMPROVE VIABILITY OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZE DAIRY, LIVESTOCK, AND POULTRY OPERATIONS.

    (a) PROGRAM AUTHORIZED- The Secretary of Agriculture may carry out a coordinated program of research, extension, and education to improve the competitiveness, viability, and sustainability of small and medium size dairy, livestock, and poultry operations (referred to in this section as `operations').

    (b) COMPONENTS- To the extent the Secretary elects to carry out the program, the Secretary shall conduct--

      (1) research, development, and on-farm extension and education concerning low-cost production facilities and practices, management systems, and genetics that are appropriate for the operations;

      (2) in the case of dairy and livestock operations, research and extension on management-intensive grazing systems for dairy and livestock production to realize the potential for reduced capital and feed costs through greater use of management skills, labor availability optimization, and the natural benefits of grazing pastures;

      (3) research and extension on integrated crop and livestock or poultry systems that increase efficiencies, reduce costs, and prevent environmental pollution to strengthen the competitive position of the operations;

      (4) economic analyses and market feasibility studies to identify new and expanded opportunities for producers on the operations that provide tools and strategies to meet consumer demand in domestic and international markets, such as cooperative marketing and value-added strategies for milk, meat, and poultry production and processing; and

      (5) technology assessment that compares the technological resources of large specialized producers with the technological needs of producers on the operations to identify and transfer existing technology across all sizes and scales and to identify the specific research and education needs of the producers.

    (c) ADMINISTRATION- The Secretary may use the funds, facilities, and technical expertise of the Agricultural Research Service and the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service and other funds available to the Secretary (other than funds of the Commodity Credit Corporation) to carry out this section.

SEC. 408. SUPPORT FOR RESEARCH REGARDING DISEASES OF WHEAT AND BARLEY CAUSED BY FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM.

    (a) RESEARCH GRANT AUTHORIZED- The Secretary of Agriculture may make a grant to a consortium of land-grant colleges and universities to enhance the ability of the consortium to carry out a multi-State research project aimed at understanding and combating diseases of wheat and barley caused by Fusarium graminearum and related fungi (referred to in this section as `wheat scab').

    (b) RESEARCH COMPONENTS- Funds provided under this section shall be available for the following collaborative, multi-State research activities:

      (1) Identification and understanding of the epidemiology of wheat scab and the toxicological properties of vomitoxin, a toxic metabolite commonly occurring in wheat and barley infected with wheat scab.

      (2) Development of crop management strategies to reduce the risk of wheat scab occurrence.

      (3) Development of--

        (A) efficient and accurate methods to monitor wheat and barley for the presence of wheat scab and resulting vomitoxin contamination;

        (B) post-harvest management techniques for wheat and barley infected with wheat scab; and

        (C) milling and food processing techniques to render contaminated grain safe.

      (4) Strengthening and expansion of plant-breeding activities to enhance the resistance of wheat and barley to wheat scab, including the establishment of a regional advanced breeding material evaluation nursery and a germplasm introduction and evaluation system.

      (5) Development and deployment of alternative fungicide application systems and formulations to control wheat scab and consideration of other chemical control strategies to assist farmers until new more resistant wheat and barley varieties are available.

    (c) COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS- Funds provided under this section shall be available for efforts to concentrate, integrate, and disseminate research, extension, and outreach-orientated information regarding wheat scab.

    (d) MANAGEMENT- To oversee the use of a grant made under this section, the Secretary may establish a committee composed of the directors of the agricultural experiment stations in the States in which land-grant colleges and universities that are members of the consortium are located.

    (e) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS- There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $5,200,000 for each of fiscal years 1999 through 2002.

TITLE V--AGRICULTURAL PROGRAM ADJUSTMENTS

Subtitle A--Food Stamp Program

SEC. 501. REDUCTIONS IN FUNDING OF EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS.

    Section 16(h)(1)(A) of the Food Stamp Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 2025(h)(1)(A)) is amended--

      (1) in clause (iv)(II), by striking `$131,000,000' and inserting `$31,000,000'; and

      (2) in clause (v)(II), by striking `$131,000,000' and inserting `$86,000,000'.

SEC. 502. REDUCTIONS IN PAYMENTS FOR ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS.

    (a) IN GENERAL- Section 16 of the Food Stamp Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 2025) is amended--

      (1) in the first sentence of subsection (a), by striking `The Secretary' and inserting `Subject to subsection (k), the Secretary'; and

      (2) by adding at the end the following:

    `(k) REDUCTIONS IN PAYMENTS FOR ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS-

      `(1) DEFINITIONS- In this subsection:

        `(A) AFDC PROGRAM- The term `AFDC program' means the program of aid to families with dependent children established under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq. (as in effect, with respect to a State, during the base period for that State)).

        `(B) BASE PERIOD- The term `base period' means the period used to determine the amount of the State family assistance grant for a State under section 403 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 603).

        `(C) MEDICAID PROGRAM- The term `medicaid program' means the program of medical assistance under a State plan or under a waiver of the plan under title XIX of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.).

      `(2) DETERMINATIONS OF AMOUNTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO BENEFITING PROGRAMS- Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and the States, shall, with respect to the base period for each State, determine--

        `(A) the annualized amount the State received under section 403(a)(3) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 603(a)(3) (as in effect during the base period)) for administrative costs common to determining the eligibility of individuals, families, and households eligible or applying for the AFDC program and the food stamp program, the AFDC program and the medicaid program, and the AFDC program, the food stamp program, and the medicaid program that were allocated to the AFDC program; and

        `(B) the annualized amount the State would have received under section 403(a)(3) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 603(a)(3) (as so in effect)), section 1903(a)(7) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1396b(a)(7) (as so in effect)), and subsection (a) of this section (as so in effect), for administrative costs common to determining the eligibility of individuals, families, and households eligible or applying for the AFDC program and the food stamp program, the AFDC program and the medicaid program, and the AFDC program, the food stamp program, and the medicaid program, if those costs had been allocated equally among such programs for which the individual, family, or household was eligible or applied for.

      `(3) REDUCTION IN PAYMENT-

        `(A) IN GENERAL- Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, effective for each of fiscal years 1999 through 2002, the Secretary shall reduce, for each fiscal year, the amount paid under subsection (a) to each State by an amount equal to the amount determined for the food stamp program under paragraph (2)(B). The Secretary shall, to the extent practicable, make the reductions required by this paragraph on a quarterly basis.

        `(B) APPLICATION- If the Secretary of Health and Human Services does not make the determinations required by paragraph (2) by September 30, 1999--

          `(i) during the fiscal year in which the determinations are made, the Secretary shall reduce the amount paid under subsection (a) to each State by an amount equal to the sum of the amounts determined for the food stamp program under paragraph (2)(B) for fiscal year 1999 through the fiscal year during which the determinations are made; and

          `(ii) for each subsequent fiscal year through fiscal year 2002, subparagraph (A) applies.

      `(4) APPEAL OF DETERMINATIONS-

        `(A) IN GENERAL- Not later than 5 days after the date on which the Secretary of Health and Human Services makes any determination required by paragraph (2) with respect to a State, the Secretary shall notify the chief executive officer of the State of the determination.

        `(B) REVIEW BY ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGE-

          `(i) IN GENERAL- Not later than 60 days after the date on which a State receives notice under subparagraph (A) of a determination, the State may appeal the determination, in whole or in part, to an administrative law judge of the Department of Health and Human Services by filing an appeal with the administrative law judge.

          `(ii) DOCUMENTATION- The administrative law judge shall consider an appeal filed by a State under clause (i) on the basis of such documentation as the State may submit and as the administrative law judge may require to support the final decision of the administrative law judge.

          `(iii) REVIEW- In deciding whether to uphold a determination, in whole or in part, the administrative law judge shall conduct a thorough review of the issues and take into account all relevant evidence.

          `(iv) DEADLINE- Not later than 60 days after the date on which the record is closed, the administrative law judge shall--

            `(I) make a final decision with respect to an appeal filed under clause (i); and

            `(II) notify the chief executive officer of the State of the decision.

        `(C) REVIEW BY DEPARTMENTAL APPEALS BOARD-

          `(i) IN GENERAL- Not later than 30 days after the date on which a State receives notice under subparagraph (B) of a final decision, the State may appeal the decision, in whole or in part, to the Departmental Appeals Board established in the Department of Health and Human Services (referred to in this paragraph as the `Board') by filing an appeal with the Board.

          `(ii) REVIEW- The Board shall review the decision on the record.

          `(iii) DEADLINE- Not later than 60 days after the date on which the appeal is filed, the Board shall--

            `(I) make a final decision with respect to an appeal filed under clause (i); and

            `(II) notify the chief executive officer of the State of the decision.

        `(D) JUDICIAL REVIEW- The determinations of the Secretary of Health and Human Services under paragraph (2), and a final decision of the administrative law judge or Board under subparagraphs (B) and (C), respectively, shall not be subject to judicial review.

        `(E) REDUCED PAYMENTS PENDING APPEAL- The pendency of an appeal under this paragraph shall not affect the requirement that the Secretary reduce payments in accordance with paragraph (3).

      `(5) ALLOCATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS-

        `(A) IN GENERAL- No funds or expenditures described in subparagraph (B) may be used to pay for costs--

          `(i) eligible for reimbursement under subsection (a) (or costs that would have been eligible for reimbursement but for this subsection); and

          `(ii) allocated for reimbursement to the food stamp program under a plan submitted by a State to the Secretary of Health and Human Services to allocate administrative costs for public assistance programs.

        `(B) FUNDS AND EXPENDITURES- Subparagraph (A) applies to--

          `(i) funds made available to carry out part A of title IV, or title XX, of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq., 1397 et seq.);

          `(ii) expenditures made as qualified State expenditures (as defined in section 409(a)(7)(B) of that Act (42 U.S.C. 609(a)(7)(B)));

          `(iii) any other Federal funds (except funds provided under subsection (a)); and

          `(iv) any other State funds that are--

            `(I) expended as a condition of receiving Federal funds; or

            `(II) used to match Federal funds under a Federal program other than the food stamp program.'.

    (b) REVIEW OF METHODOLOGY USED TO MAKE CERTAIN DETERMINATIONS- Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment, the Comptroller General of the United States shall--

      (1) review the adequacy of the methodology used in making the determinations required under section 16(k)(2)(B) of the Food Stamp Act of 1977 (as added by subsection (a)(2)); and

      (2) submit a written report on the results of the review to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate.

SEC. 503. EXTENSION OF ELIGIBILITY PERIOD FOR REFUGEES AND CERTAIN OTHER QUALIFIED ALIENS FROM 5 TO 7 YEARS.

    Section 402(a)(2)(A) of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (8 U.S.C. 1612(a)(2)(A)) is amended--

      (1) by striking clause (ii);

      (2) by striking `ASYLEES- ' and all that follows through `paragraph (3)(A)' and inserting `ASYLEES- With respect to the specified Federal programs described in paragraph (3)'; and

      (3) by redesignating subclauses (I) through (V) as clauses (i) through (v) and indenting appropriately.

SEC. 504. FOOD STAMP ELIGIBILITY FOR CERTAIN DISABLED ALIENS.

    Section 402(a)(2)(F) of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (8 U.S.C. 1612(a)(2)(F)) is amended--

      (1) by striking `program defined in paragraph (3)(A) (relating to the supplemental security income program)' and inserting `specified Federal programs described in paragraph (3)'; and

      (2) in clause (ii)--

        (A) by inserting `(I) in the case of the specified Federal program described in paragraph (3)(A),' after `(ii)';

        (B) by striking the period at the end and inserting `; and'; and

        (C) by adding at the end the following:

          `(II) in the case of the specified Federal program described in paragraph (3)(B), is receiving benefits or assistance for blindness or disability (within the meaning of section 3(r) of the Food Stamp Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 2012(r))).'.

SEC. 505. FOOD STAMP ELIGIBILITY FOR CERTAIN INDIANS.

    Section 402(a)(2)(G) of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (8 U.S.C. 1612(a)(2)(G)) is amended--

      (1) in the subparagraph heading, by striking `SSI EXCEPTION' and inserting `EXCEPTION'; and

      (2) by striking `program defined in paragraph (3)(A) (relating to the supplemental security income program)' and inserting `specified Federal programs described in paragraph (3)'.

SEC. 506. FOOD STAMP ELIGIBILITY FOR CERTAIN ELDERLY INDIVIDUALS.

    Section 402(a)(2) of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (8 U.S.C. 1612(a)(2)) is amended by adding at the end the following:

        `(I) FOOD STAMP EXCEPTION FOR CERTAIN ELDERLY INDIVIDUALS- With respect to eligibility for benefits for the specified Federal program described in paragraph (3)(B), paragraph (1) shall not apply to any individual who on August 22, 1996--

          `(i) was lawfully residing in the United States; and

          `(ii) was 65 years of age or older.'.

SEC. 507. FOOD STAMP ELIGIBILITY FOR CERTAIN CHILDREN.

    Section 402(a)(2) of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (8 U.S.C. 1612(a)(2)) (as amended by section 506) is amended by adding at the end the following:

        `(J) FOOD STAMP EXCEPTION FOR CERTAIN CHILDREN- With respect to eligibility for benefits for the specified Federal program described in paragraph (3)(B), paragraph (1) shall not apply to any individual who--

          `(i) was lawfully residing in the United States on August 22, 1996; and

          `(ii) is under 18 years of age.'.

SEC. 508. FOOD STAMP ELIGIBILITY FOR CERTAIN HMONG AND HIGHLAND LAOTIANS.

    Section 402(a)(2) of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (8 U.S.C. 1612(a)(2)) (as amended by section 507) is amended by adding at the end the following:

        `(K) FOOD STAMP EXCEPTION FOR CERTAIN HMONG AND HIGHLAND LAOTIANS- With respect to eligibility for benefits for the specified Federal program described in paragraph (3)(B), paragraph (1) shall not apply to--

          `(i) any individual who--

            `(I) is lawfully residing in the United States; and

            `(II) was a member of a Hmong or Highland Laotian tribe at the time that the tribe rendered assistance to United States personnel by taking part in a military or rescue operation during the Vietnam era (as defined in section 101 of title 38, United States Code);

          `(ii) the spouse, or an unmarried dependent child, of such an individual; or

          `(iii) the unremarried surviving spouse of such an individual who is deceased.'.

SEC. 509. CONFORMING AMENDMENTS.

    Section 403(d) of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (8 U.S.C. 1613(d)) is amended--

      (1) in the subsection heading, by striking `SSI' and all that follows through `INDIANS' and inserting `BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN GROUPS';

      (2) by striking `not apply to an individual' and inserting `not apply to--

      `(1) an individual';

      (3) by striking `(a)(3)(A)' and inserting `(a)(3)'; and

      (4) by striking the period at the end and inserting `; or'; and

      (5) by adding at the end the following:

      `(2) an individual, spouse, or dependent described in section 402(a)(2)(K), but only with respect to the specified Federal program described in section 402(a)(3)(B).'.

SEC. 510. EFFECTIVE DATES.

    (a) REDUCTIONS- The amendments made by sections 501 and 502 take effect on the date of enactment of this Act.

    (b) FOOD STAMP ELIGIBILITY- The amendments made by sections 503 through 509 take effect on November 1, 1998.

Subtitle B--Information Technology Funding

SEC. 521. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FUNDING.

    (a) IN GENERAL- Section 4(g) of the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act (15 U.S.C. 714b(g)) is amended in the first sentence by striking `$275,000,000' and inserting `$193,000,000'.

    (b) EFFECTIVE DATE- The amendment made by subsection (a) takes effect on October 1, 1997.

Subtitle C--Crop Insurance

SEC. 531. FUNDING.

    Section 516 of the Federal Crop Insurance Act (7 U.S.C. 1516) is amended--

      (1) in subsection (a)--

        (A) by striking paragraph (1) and inserting the following:

      `(1) DISCRETIONARY EXPENSES- There are authorized to be appropriated for fiscal year 1999 and each subsequent fiscal year such sums as are necessary to cover the salaries and expenses of the Corporation.'; and

        (B) in paragraph (2)--

          (i) by inserting after `are necessary to cover' the following: `for each of the 1999 and subsequent reinsurance years'; and

          (ii) by striking subparagraph (A) and inserting the following:

        `(A) the administrative and operating expenses of the Corporation for the sales commissions of agents; and'; and

      (2) by striking subsection (b) and inserting the following:

    `(b) PAYMENT OF CORPORATION EXPENSES FROM INSURANCE FUND-

      `(1) EXPENSES GENERALLY- For each of the 1999 and subsequent reinsurance years, the Corporation may pay from the insurance fund established under subsection (c) all expenses of the Corporation (other than expenses covered by subsection (a)(1) and expenses covered by paragraph (2)(A)), including--

        `(A) premium subsidies and indemnities;

        `(B) administrative and operating expenses of the Corporation necessary to pay the sales commissions of agents; and

        `(C) all administrative and operating expense reimbursements due under a reinsurance agreement with an approved insurance provider.

      `(2) RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EXPENSES-

        `(A) IN GENERAL- For each of the 1999 and subsequent reinsurance years, the Corporation may pay from the insurance fund established under subsection (c) research and development expenses of the Corporation, but not to exceed $3,500,000 for each fiscal year.

        `(B) DAIRY OPTIONS PILOT PROGRAM- Amounts necessary to carry out the dairy options pilot program shall not be counted toward the limitation on research and development expenses specified in subparagraph (A).'.

SEC. 532. BUDGETARY OFFSETS.

    (a) ADMINISTRATIVE FEE FOR CATASTROPHIC RISK PROTECTION- Section 508(b) of the Federal Crop Insurance Act (7 U.S.C. 1508(b)) is amended by striking paragraph (5) and inserting the following:

      `(5) ADMINISTRATIVE FEE-

        `(A) BASIC FEE- Each producer shall pay an administrative fee for catastrophic risk protection in an amount equal to 10 percent of the premium for the catastrophic risk protection or $50 per crop per county, whichever is greater, as determined by the Corporation.

        `(B) ADDITIONAL FEE- In addition to the amount required under subparagraph (A), the producer shall pay a $10 fee for each amount determined under subparagraph (A).

        `(C) TIME FOR PAYMENT- The amounts required under subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall be paid by the producer on the date that premium for a policy of additional coverage would be paid by the producer.

        `(D) USE OF FEES-

          `(i) IN GENERAL- The amounts paid under this paragraph shall be deposited in the crop insurance fund established under section 516(c), to be available for the programs and activities of the Corporation.

          `(ii) LIMITATION- No funds deposited in the crop insurance fund under this subparagraph may be used to compensate an approved insurance provider or agent for the delivery of services under this subsection.

        `(E) WAIVER OF FEE- The Corporation shall waive the amounts required under this paragraph for limited resource farmers, as defined by the Corporation.'.

    (b) ADMINISTRATIVE FEE FOR ADDITIONAL COVERAGE- Section 508(c)(10) of the Federal Crop Insurance Act (7 U.S.C. 1508(c)(10)) is amended--

      (1) by striking subparagraph (A) and inserting the following:

        `(A) FEE REQUIRED- Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, if a producer elects to purchase additional coverage for a crop at a level that is less than 65 percent of the recorded or appraised average yield indemnified at 100 percent of the expected market price, or an equivalent coverage, the producer shall pay an administrative fee for the additional coverage. The administrative fee for the producer shall be $50 per crop per county, but not to exceed $200 per producer per county, up to a maximum of $600 per producer for all counties in which a producer has insured crops. Subparagraphs (D) and (E) of subsection (b)(5) shall apply with respect to the use of administrative fees under this subparagraph.'; and

      (2) in subparagraph (C), by striking `$10' and inserting `$20'.

    (c) REIMBURSEMENT FOR ADMINISTRATIVE AND OPERATING COSTS- Section 508(k) of the Federal Crop Insurance Act (7 U.S.C. 1508(k)) is amended by striking paragraph (4) and inserting the following:

      `(4) RATE-

        `(A) IN GENERAL- Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the rate established by the Board to reimburse approved insurance providers and agents for the administrative and operating costs of the providers and agents shall not exceed--

          `(i) for the 1998 reinsurance year, 27 percent of the premium used to define loss ratio; and

          `(ii) for each of the 1999 and subsequent reinsurance years, 24.5 percent of the premium used to define loss ratio.

        `(B) PROPORTIONAL REDUCTIONS- A policy of additional coverage that received a rate of reimbursement for administrative and operating costs for the 1998 reinsurance year that is lower than the rate specified in subparagraph (A)(i) shall receive a reduction in the rate of reimbursement that is proportional to the reduction in the rate of reimbursement between clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A).'.

    (d) LOSS ADJUSTMENT EXPENSES FOR CATASTROPHIC RISK PROTECTION- Section 508(b) of the Federal Crop Insurance Act (7 U.S.C. 1508(b)) is amended by adding at the end the following:

      `(11) LOSS ADJUSTMENT- The rate for reimbursing an approved insurance provider or agent for expenses incurred by the approved insurance provider or agent for loss adjustment in connection with a policy of catastrophic risk protection shall not exceed 11 percent of the premium for catastrophic risk protection that is used to define loss ratio.'.

SEC. 533. PROCEDURES FOR RESPONDING TO CERTAIN INQUIRIES.

    Section 506 of the Federal Crop Insurance Act (7 U.S.C. 1506) is amended by adding at the end the following:

    `(s) PROCEDURES FOR RESPONDING TO CERTAIN INQUIRIES-

      `(1) PROCEDURES REQUIRED- The Corporation shall establish procedures under which the Corporation will provide a final agency determination in response to an inquiry regarding the interpretation by the Corporation of this title or any regulation issued under this title.

      `(2) IMPLEMENTATION- Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Corporation shall issue regulations to implement this subsection. At a minimum, the regulations shall establish--

        `(A) the manner in which inquiries described in paragraph (1) are required to be submitted to the Corporation; and

        `(B) a reasonable maximum number of days within which the Corporation will respond to all inquiries.

      `(3) EFFECT OF FAILURE TO TIMELY RESPOND- If the Corporation fails to respond to an inquiry in accordance with the procedures established pursuant to this subsection, the person requesting the interpretation of this title or regulation may assume the interpretation is correct for the applicable reinsurance year.'.

SEC. 534. TIME PERIOD FOR RESPONDING TO SUBMISSION OF NEW POLICIES.

    Section 508(h) of the Federal Crop Insurance Act (7 U.S.C. 1508(h)) is amended by adding at the end the following:

      `(10) TIME LIMITS FOR RESPONSE TO SUBMISSION OF NEW POLICIES-

        `(A) IN GENERAL- The Board shall establish a reasonable time period within which the Board shall approve or disapprove a proposal from a person regarding a new policy submitted in accordance with this subsection.

        `(B) EFFECT OF FAILURE TO MEET TIME LIMITS- Except as provided in subparagraph (C), if the Board fails to provide a response to a proposal described in subparagraph (A) in accordance with subparagraph (A), the new policy shall be deemed to be approved by the Board for purposes of this subsection for the initial reinsurance year designated for the new policy in the request.

        `(C) EXCEPTIONS- Subparagraph (B) shall not apply to a proposal submitted under this subsection if the Board and the person submitting the request agree to an extension of the time period.'.

SEC. 535. CROP INSURANCE STUDY.

    (a) IN GENERAL- Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Agriculture shall enter into a contract, with 1 or more entities outside the Federal Government with expertise in the establishment and delivery of crop and revenue insurance to agricultural producers, under which the contractor shall conduct a study of crop insurance issues specified in the contract, including--

      (1) improvement of crop insurance service to agricultural producers;

      (2) options for transforming the role of the Federal Government from a crop insurance provider to solely that of a crop insurance regulator; and

      (3) privatization of crop insurance coverage.

    (b) CONTRACTOR- Not later than 180 days after the date the contract is entered into, the contractor shall complete the study and submit a report on the study, including appropriate recommendations, to the Secretary.

    (c) REPORT- Not later than 30 days after the date the Secretary receives the report, the Secretary shall submit the report, and any comments on the report, to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate.

SEC. 536. REQUIRED TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF STANDARD REINSURANCE AGREEMENTS.

    (a) DEFINITIONS- In this section, the terms `approved insurance provider' and `Corporation' have the meanings given the terms in section 502(b) of the Federal Crop Insurance Act (7 U.S.C. 1502(b)).

    (b) TERMS AND CONDITIONS-

      (1) INCORPORATION OF AMENDMENTS- For each of the 1999 and subsequent reinsurance years, the Corporation shall ensure that each Standard Reinsurance Agreement between an approved insurance provider and the Corporation reflects the amendments to the Federal Crop Insurance Act (7 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.) that are made by this subtitle to the extent the amendments are applicable to approved insurance providers.

      (2) RETENTION OF EXISTING PROVISIONS- Except to the extent necessary to implement the amendments made by this subtitle, each Standard Reinsurance Agreement described in paragraph (1) shall contain the following provisions of the Standard Reinsurance Agreement for the 1998 reinsurance year:

        (A) Section II, concerning the terms of reinsurance and underwriting gain and loss for an approved insurance provider.

        (B) Section III, concerning the terms for subsidies and administrative fees for an approved insurance provider.

        (C) Section IV, concerning the terms for loss adjustment for an approved insurance provider under catastrophic risk protection.

        (D) Section V.C., concerning interest payments between the Corporation and an approved insurance provider.

        (E) Section V.I.5., concerning liquidated damages.

    (c) IMPLEMENTATION- To implement this subtitle and the amendments made by this subtitle, the Corporation is not required to amend provisions of the Standard Reinsurance Agreement not specifically affected by this subtitle or an amendment made by this subtitle.

SEC. 537. EFFECTIVE DATE.

    Except as provided in section 535, this subtitle and the amendments made by this subtitle take effect on July 1, 1998.

TITLE VI--MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

Subtitle A--Existing Authorities

SEC. 601. RETENTION AND USE OF FEES.

    (a) ORGANIC CERTIFICATION- Section 2107 of the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 (7 U.S.C. 6506) is amended by adding at the end the following:

    `(d) AVAILABILITY OF FEES-

      `(1) ACCOUNT- Fees collected under subsection (a)(10) (including late payment penalties and interest earned from investment of the fees) shall be credited to the account that incurs the cost of the services provided under this title.

      `(2) USE- The collected fees shall be available to the Secretary, without further appropriation or fiscal-year limitation, to pay the expenses of the Secretary incurred in providing accreditation services under this title.'.

    (b) NATIONAL ARBORETUM- Section 6(b) of the Act of March 4, 1927 (20 U.S.C. 196(b)), is amended by striking `Treasury' and inserting `Treasury. Amounts in the special fund shall be available to the Secretary of Agriculture, without further appropriation,'.

    (c) PATENT CULTURE COLLECTION FEES-

      (1) RETENTION- All funds collected by the Agricultural Research Service of the Department of Agriculture in connection with the acceptance of microorganisms for deposit in, or the distribution of microorganisms from, the Patent Culture Collection maintained and operated by the Agricultural Research Service shall be credited to the appropriation supporting the maintenance and operation of the Patent Culture Collection.

      (2) USE- The collected funds shall be available to the Agricultural Research Service, without further appropriation or fiscal-year limitation, to carry out its responsibilities under law (including international treaties) with respect to the Patent Culture Collection.

SEC. 602. OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES.

    The Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 is amended by inserting after section 219 (7 U.S.C. 6919) the following:

`SEC. 220. OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES.

    `The Secretary shall establish for the Department, in the Office of the Secretary, an Office of Energy Policy and New Uses.'.

SEC. 603. KIWIFRUIT RESEARCH, PROMOTION, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION PROGRAM.

    (a) AMENDMENTS TO ORDERS- Section 554(c) of the National Kiwifruit Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 7463(c)) is amended in the second sentence by inserting before the period at the end the following: `, except that an amendment to an order shall not require a referendum to become effective'.

    (b) NATIONAL KIWIFRUIT BOARD- Section 555 of the National Kiwifruit Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 7464) is amended--

      (1) in subsection (a), by striking paragraphs (1) through (3) and inserting the following:

      `(1) 10 members who are producers, exporters, or importers (or their representatives), based on a proportional representation of the level of domestic production and imports of kiwifruit (as determined by the Secretary).

      `(2) 1 member appointed from the general public.';

      (2) in subsection (b)--

        (A) by striking `MEMBERSHIP- ' and all that follows through `paragraph (2), the' and inserting `MEMBERSHIP- Subject to the 11-member limit, the'; and

        (B) by striking paragraph (2); and

      (3) in subsection (c)--

        (A) in paragraph (2), by inserting `who are producers' after `members';

        (B) in paragraph (3)--

          (i) by inserting `who are importers or exporters' after `members'; and

          (ii) by striking `(a)(2)' and inserting `(a)(1)'; and

        (C) in the second sentence of paragraph (5), by inserting `and alternate' after `member'.

SEC. 604. FOOD ANIMAL RESIDUE AVOIDANCE DATABASE PROGRAM.

    (a) CONTINUATION OF PROGRAM- The Secretary of Agriculture shall continue operation of the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Database program (referred to in this section as the `FARAD program') through contracts, grants, or cooperative agreements with appropriate colleges or universities.

    (b) ACTIVITIES- In carrying out the FARAD program, the Secretary shall--

      (1) provide livestock producers, extension specialists, scientists, and veterinarians with information to prevent drug, pesticide, and environmental contaminant residues in food animal products;

      (2) maintain up-to-date information concerning--

        (A) withdrawal times on FDA-approved food animal drugs and appropriate withdrawal intervals for drugs used in food animals in the United States, as established under section 512(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 360b(a));

        (B) official tolerances for drugs and pesticides in tissues, eggs, and milk;

        (C) descriptions and sensitivities of rapid screening tests for detecting residues in tissues, eggs, and milk; and

        (D) data on the distribution and fate of chemicals in food animals;

      (3) publish periodically a compilation of food animal drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration;

      (4) make information on food animal drugs available to the public through handbooks and other literature, computer software, a telephone hotline, and the Internet;

      (5) furnish producer quality-assurance programs with up-to-date data on approved drugs;

      (6) maintain a comprehensive and up-to-date, residue avoidance database;

      (7) provide professional advice for determining the withdrawal times necessary for food safety in the use of drugs in food animals; and

      (8) engage in other activities designed to promote food safety.

    (c) CONTRACT, GRANTS, AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS- The Secretary shall offer to enter into a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement with 1 or more appropriate colleges and universities to operate the FARAD program. The term of the contract, grant, or cooperative agreement shall be 3 years, with options to extend the term of the contract triennially.

    (d) INDIRECT COSTS- Federal funds provided by the Secretary under a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement under this section shall be subject to reduction for indirect costs of the recipient of the funds in an amount not to exceed 19 percent of the total Federal funds provided under the contract, grant, or cooperative agreement.

SEC. 605. HONEY RESEARCH, PROMOTION, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION.

    (a) FINDINGS AND PURPOSES- Section 2 of the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 4601) is amended--

      (1) by striking the section heading and all that follows through `The Congress finds that:' and inserting the following:

`SEC. 2. FINDINGS AND PURPOSES.

    `(a) FINDINGS- Congress makes the following findings:';

      (2) in subsection (a) (as so designated)--

        (A) in paragraphs (6) and (7), by striking `and consumer education' each place it appears and inserting `consumer education, and industry information'; and

        (B) by inserting after paragraph (7) the following:

      `(8) The ability to develop and maintain purity standards for honey and honey products is critical to maintaining the consumer confidence, safety, and trust that are essential components of any undertaking to maintain and develop markets for honey and honey products.

      `(9) Research directed at improving the cost effectiveness and efficiency of beekeeping, as well as developing better means of dealing with pest and disease problems, is essential to keeping honey and honey product prices competitive and facilitating market growth as well as maintaining the financial well-being of the honey industry.

      `(10) Research involving the quality, safety, and image of honey and honey products and how that quality, safety, and image may be affected during the extraction, processing, packaging, marketing, and other stages of the honey and honey product production and distribution process, is highly important to building and maintaining markets for honey and honey products.'; and

      (3) by striking subsection (b) and inserting the following:

    `(b) PURPOSES- The purposes of this Act are--

      `(1) to authorize the establishment of an orderly procedure for the development and financing, through an adequate assessment, of an effective, continuous, and nationally coordinated program of promotion, research, consumer education, and industry information designed to--

        `(A) strengthen the position of the honey industry in the marketplace;

        `(B) maintain, develop, and expand domestic and foreign markets and uses for honey and honey products;

        `(C) maintain and improve the competitiveness and efficiency of the honey industry; and

        `(D) sponsor research to develop better means of dealing with pest and disease problems;

      `(2) to maintain and expand the markets for all honey and honey products in a manner that--

        `(A) is not designed to maintain or expand any individual producer's, importer's, or handler's share of the market; and

        `(B) does not compete with or replace individual advertising or promotion efforts designed to promote individual brand name or trade name honey or honey products; and

      `(3) to authorize and fund programs that result in government speech promoting government objectives.

    `(c) ADMINISTRATION- Nothing in this Act--

      `(1) prohibits the sale of various grades of honey;

      `(2) provides for control of honey production;

      `(3) limits the right of the individual honey producer to produce honey; or

      `(4) creates a trade barrier to honey or honey products produced in a foreign country.'.

    (b) DEFINITIONS- Section 3 of the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 4602) is amended--

      (1) by striking paragraph (7) and inserting the following:

      `(7) HANDLE-

        `(A) IN GENERAL- The term `handle' means to process, package, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way place or cause to be placed in commerce, honey or a honey product.

        `(B) INCLUSION- The term `handle' includes selling unprocessed honey that will be consumed or used without further processing or packaging.

        `(C) EXCLUSIONS- The term `handle' does not include--

          `(i) the transportation of unprocessed honey by a producer to a handler;

          `(ii) the transportation by a commercial carrier of honey, whether processed or unprocessed, for a handler or producer; or

          `(iii) the purchase of honey or a honey product by a consumer or other end-user of the honey or honey product.';

      (2) by adding at the end the following:

      `(19) DEPARTMENT- The term `Department' means the Department of Agriculture.

      `(20) HONEY PRODUCTION- The term `honey production' means all beekeeping operations related to--

        `(A) managing honey bee colonies to produce honey;

        `(B) harvesting honey from the colonies;

        `(C) extracting honey from the honeycombs; and

        `(D) preparing honey for sale for further processing.

      `(21) INDUSTRY INFORMATION- The term `industry information' means information or a program that will lead to the development of new markets, new marketing strategies, or increased efficiency for the honey industry, or an activity to enhance the image of honey and honey products and of the honey industry.

      `(22) NATIONAL HONEY MARKETING COOPERATIVE- The term `national honey marketing cooperative' means a cooperative that markets its products in at least 2 of the following 4 regions of the United States, as determined by the Secretary:

        `(A) The Atlantic Coast, including the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

        `(B) The Mideast.

        `(C) The Midwest.

        `(D) The Pacific, including the States of Alaska and Hawaii.

      `(23) QUALIFIED NATIONAL ORGANIZATION REPRESENTING HANDLER INTERESTS- The term `qualified national organization representing handler interests' means an organization that the Secretary certifies as being eligible to recommend nominations for the Committee handler, handler-importer, alternate handler, and alternate handler-importer members of the Honey Board under section 7(b).

      `(24) QUALIFIED NATIONAL ORGANIZATION REPRESENTING IMPORTER INTERESTS- The term `qualified national organization representing importer interests' means an organization that the Secretary certifies as being eligible to recommend nominations for the Committee importer, handler-importer, alternate importer, and alternate handler-importer members of the Honey Board under section 7(b).'; and

      (3) by reordering the paragraphs so that they are in alphabetical order by term defined and redesignating the paragraphs accordingly.

    (c) HONEY RESEARCH, PROMOTION, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER- Section 4 of the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 4603) is amended by inserting `and regulations' after `orders'.

    (d) NOTICE AND HEARING- Section 5 of the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 4604) is amended to read as follows:

`SEC. 5. NOTICE AND HEARING.

    `(a) NOTICE AND COMMENT- In issuing an order under this Act, an amendment to an order, or a regulation to carry out this Act, the Secretary shall comply with section 553 of title 5, United States Code.

    `(b) FORMAL AGENCY ACTION- Sections 556 and 557 of that title shall not apply with respect to the issuance of an order, an amendment to an order, or a regulation under this Act.

    `(c) PROPOSAL OF AN ORDER- A proposal for an order may be submitted to the Secretary by any organization or interested person affected by this Act.'.

    (e) FINDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDER- Section 6 of the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 4605) is amended to read as follows:

`SEC. 6. FINDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDER.

    `After notice and opportunity for comment has been provided in accordance with section 5(a), the Secretary shall issue an order, an amendment to an order, or a regulation under this Act, if the Secretary finds, and specifies in the order, amendment, or regulation, that the issuance of the order, amendment, or regulation will assist in carrying out the purposes of this Act.'.

    (f) REQUIRED TERMS OF AN ORDER-

      (1) NATIONAL HONEY NOMINATIONS COMMITTEE- Section 7(b) of the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 4606(b)) is amended--

        (A) in paragraph (2), by striking `except' and all that follows through `three-year terms' and inserting `except that the term of appointments to the Committee may be staggered periodically, as determined by the Secretary'; and

        (B) in paragraph (5)--

          (i) in the second sentence, by striking `after the first annual meeting'; and

          (ii) in the third sentence, by striking `per centum' and inserting `percent'.

      (2) HONEY BOARD- Section 7(c) of the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 4606(c)) is amended--

        (A) by redesignating paragraphs (3) through (6) as paragraphs (8) through (11), respectively;

        (B) in paragraph (2)--

          (i) in subparagraph (A), by striking `seven' and inserting `7'; and

          (ii) by striking subparagraphs (B) through (E) and all that follows and inserting the following:

        `(B) 2 members who are handlers appointed from nominations submitted by the Committee from recommendations made by qualified national organizations representing handler interests;

        `(C) if approved in a referendum conducted under this Act, 2 members who--

          `(i) are handlers of honey;

          `(ii) during any 3 of the preceding 5 years, were also importers of record of at least 40,000 pounds of honey; and

          `(iii) are appointed from nominations submitted by the Committee from recommendations made by--

            `(I) qualified national organizations representing handler interests or qualified national organizations representing importer interests; or

            `(II) if the Secretary determines that there is not a qualified national organization representing handler interests or a qualified national organization representing importer interests, individual handlers or importers that have paid assessments to the Honey Board on imported honey or honey products;

        `(D) 2 members who are importers appointed from nominations submitted by the Committee from recommendations made by--

          `(i) qualified national organizations representing importer interests; or

          `(ii) if the Secretary determines that there is not a qualified national organization representing importer interests, individual importers that have paid assessments to the Honey Board on imported honey or honey products; and

        `(E) 1 member who is an officer, director, or employee of a national honey marketing cooperative appointed from nominations submitted by the Committee from recommendations made by qualified national honey marketing cooperatives.';

        (C) by inserting after paragraph (2) the following:

      `(3) ALTERNATES- The Committee shall submit nominations for an alternate for each member of the Honey Board described in paragraph (2). An alternate shall be appointed in the same manner as a member and shall serve when the member is absent from a meeting or is disqualified.

      `(4) RECONSTITUTION-

        `(A) REVIEW- If approved in a referendum conducted under this Act and in accordance with rules issued by the Secretary, the Honey Board shall review, at times determined under subparagraph (E)--

          `(i) the geographic distribution of the quantities of domestically produced honey assessed under the order; and

          `(ii) changes in the annual average percentage of assessments owed by importers under the order relative to assessments owed by producers and handlers of domestic honey, including--

            `(I) whether any changes in assessments owed on imported quantities are owed by importers described in paragraph (5)(B); or

            `(II) whether such importers are handler-importers described in paragraph (2)(C).

        `(B) RECOMMENDATIONS- If warranted and in accordance with this subsection, the Honey Board shall recommend to the Secretary--

          `(i) changes in the regional representation of honey producers established by the Secretary;

          `(ii) if necessary to reflect any changes in the proportion of domestic and imported honey assessed under the order or the source of assessments on imported honey or honey products, the reallocation of--

            `(I) handler-importer member positions under paragraph (2)(C) as handler member positions under paragraph (2)(B);

            `(II) importer member positions under paragraph (2)(D) as handler-importer member positions under paragraph (2)(C); or

            `(III) handler-importer member positions under paragraph (2)(C) as importer member positions under paragraph (2)(D); or

          `(iii) if necessary to reflect any changes in the proportion of domestic and imported honey or honey products assessed under the order, the addition of members to the Honey Board under subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (D) of paragraph (2).

        `(C) SCOPE OF REVIEW- The review required under subparagraph (A) shall be based on data from the 5-year period preceding the year in which the review is conducted.

        `(D) BASIS FOR RECOMMENDATIONS-

          `(i) IN GENERAL- Except as provided in subparagraph (F), recommendations made under subparagraph (B) shall be based on--

            `(I) the 5-year average annual assessments, excluding the 2 years containing the highest and lowest disparity between the proportion of assessments owed from imported and domestic honey or honey products, determined pursuant to the review that is conducted under subparagraph (A); and

            `(II) whether any change in the average annual assessments is from the assessments owed by importers described in paragraph (5)(B) or from the assessments owed by handler-importers described in paragraph (2)(C).

          `(ii) PROPORTIONS- The Honey Board shall recommend a reallocation or addition of members pursuant to clause (ii) or (iii) of subparagraph (B) only if 1 or more of the following proportions change by more than 6 percent from the base period proportion determined in accordance with subparagraph (F):

            `(I) The proportion of assessments owed by handler-importers described in paragraph (2)(C) compared with the proportion of assessments owed by importers described in paragraph (2)(D).

            `(II) The proportion of assessments owed by importers compared with the proportion of assessments owed on domestic honey by producers and handlers.

        `(E) TIMING OF REVIEW-

          `(i) IN GENERAL- The Honey Board shall conduct the reviews required under this paragraph not more than once during each 5-year period.

          `(ii) INITIAL REVIEW- The Honey Board shall conduct the initial review required under this paragraph prior to the initial continuation referendum conducted under section 13(c) following the referendum conducted under section 14.

        `(F) BASE PERIOD PROPORTIONS-

          `(i) IN GENERAL- The base period proportions for determining the magnitude of change under subparagraph (D) shall be the proportions determined during the prior review conducted under this paragraph.

          `(ii) INITIAL REVIEW- In the case of the initial review required under subparagraph (E)(ii), the base period proportions shall be the proportions determined by the Honey Board for fiscal year 1996.

      `(5) RESTRICTIONS ON NOMINATION AND APPOINTMENT-

        `(A) PRODUCER-PACKERS AS PRODUCERS- No producer-packer that, during any 3 of the preceding 5 years, purchased for resale more honey than the producer-packer produced shall be eligible for nomination or appointment to the Honey Board as a producer described in paragraph (2)(A) or as an alternate to such a producer.

        `(B) IMPORTERS- No importer that, during any 3 of the preceding 5 years, did not receive at least 75 percent of the gross income generated by the sale of honey and honey products from the sale of imported honey and honey products shall be eligible for nomination or appointment to the Honey Board as an importer described in paragraph (2)(D) or an alternate to such an importer.

      `(6) CERTIFICATION OF ORGANIZATIONS-

        `(A) IN GENERAL- The eligibility of an organization to participate in the making of recommendations to the Committee for nomination to the Honey Board to represent handlers or importers under this section shall be certified by the Secretary.

        `(B) ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA- Subject to the other provisions of this paragraph, the Secretary shall certify an organization that the Secretary determines meets the eligibility criteria established by the Secretary under this paragraph.

        `(C) FINALITY- An eligibility determination of the Secretary under this paragraph shall be final.

        `(D) BASIS FOR CERTIFICATION- Certification of an organization under this paragraph shall be based on, in addition to other available information, a factual report submitted by the organization that contains information considered relevant by the Secretary, including--

          `(i) the geographic territory covered by the active membership of the organization;

          `(ii) the nature and size of the active membership of the organization, including the proportion of the total number of active handlers or importers represented by the organization;

          `(iii) evidence of the stability and permanency of the organization;

          `(iv) sources from which the operating funds of the organization are derived;

          `(v) the functions of the organization; and

          `(vi) the ability and willingness of the organization to further the purposes of this Act.

        `(E) PRIMARY CONSIDERATIONS- A primary consideration in determining the eligibility of an organization under this paragraph shall be whether--

          `(i) the membership of the organization consists primarily of handlers or importers that derive a substantial quantity of their income from sales of honey and honey products; and

          `(ii) the organization has an interest in the marketing of honey and honey products.

        `(F) NONMEMBERS- As a condition of certification under this paragraph, an organization shall agree--

          `(i) to notify nonmembers of the organization of Honey Board nomination opportunities for which the organization is certified to make recommendations to the Committee; and

          `(ii) to consider the nomination of nonmembers when making the nominations of the organization to the Committee, if nonmembers indicate an interest in serving on the Honey Board.

      `(7) MINIMUM PERCENTAGE OF HONEY PRODUCERS- Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, at least 50 percent of the members of the Honey Board shall be honey producers.'; and

        (D) in paragraph (8) (as so redesignated), by striking `except' and all that follows through `three-year terms' and inserting `except that appointments to the Honey Board may be staggered periodically, as determined by the Secretary, to maintain continuity of the Honey Board with respect to all members and with respect to members representing particular groups.'.

      (3) ASSESSMENTS- Section 7(e) of the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 4606(e)) is amended--

        (A) by redesignating paragraphs (2) and (3) as paragraphs (4) and (5), respectively;

        (B) by striking paragraph (1) and inserting the following:

      `(1) IN GENERAL- The Honey Board shall administer collection of the assessment provided for in this subsection, and may accept voluntary contributions from other sources, to finance the expenses described in subsections (d) and (f).

      `(2) RATE- Except as provided in paragraph (3), the assessment rate shall be $0.0075 per pound (payable in the manner described in section 9), with--

        `(A) in the case of honey produced in the United States, $0.0075 per pound payable by honey producers; and

        `(B) in the case of honey or honey products imported into the United States, $0.0075 per pound payable by honey importers.

      `(3) ALTERNATIVE RATE APPROVED IN REFERENDUM- If approved in a referendum conducted under this Act, the assessment rate shall be $0.015 per pound (payable in the manner described in section 9)--

        `(A) in the case of honey produced in the United States--

          `(i) $0.0075 per pound payable by--

            `(I) honey producers; and

            `(II) producer-packers on all honey produced by the producer-packers; and

          `(ii) $0.0075 per pound payable by--

            `(I) handlers; and

            `(II) producer-packers on all honey and honey products handled by the producer-packers, including honey produced by the producer-packers); and

        `(B) in the case of honey and honey products imported into the United States, $0.015 per pound payable by honey importers, of which $0.0075 per pound represents the assessment due from the handler to be paid by the importer on behalf of the handler.';

        (C) in paragraph (4) (as so redesignated), by striking subparagraph (B) and inserting the following:

        `(B) SMALL QUANTITIES-

          `(i) IN GENERAL- A producer, producer-packer, handler, or importer that produces, imports, or handles during a year less than 6,000 pounds of honey or honey products shall be exempt in that year from payment of an assessment on honey or honey products that the person distributes directly through local retail outlets, as determined by the Secretary, during that year.

          `(ii) INAPPLICABILITY- If a person no longer meets the requirements of clause (i) for an exemption, the person shall--

            `(I) file a report with the Honey Board in the form and manner prescribed by the Honey Board; and

            `(II) pay an assessment on or before March 15 of the subsequent year on all honey or honey products produced, imported, or handled by the person during the year in which the person no longer meets the requirements of clause (i) for an exemption.'; and

        (D) in paragraph (5) (as so redesignated)--

          (i) by inserting `handler,' after `producer-packer' each place it appears;

          (ii) by striking `paragraph (2)' and inserting `paragraph (4)'; and

          (iii) by inserting `, handler,' after `producer' the last place it appears.

      (4) USE OF FUNDS- Section 7(f) of the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 4606(f)) is amended--

        (A) by striking `(f) Funds collected by the Honey Board from the assessments' and inserting the following:

    `(f) FUNDS-

      `(1) USE- Funds collected by the Honey Board';

        (B) by striking `The Secretary shall' and inserting the following:

      `(3) REIMBURSEMENT- The Secretary shall'; and

        (C) by inserting after paragraph (1) (as designated by subparagraph (A)) the following:

      `(2) RESEARCH PROJECTS-

        `(A) IN GENERAL- If approved in a referendum conducted under this Act, the Honey Board shall reserve at least 8 percent of all assessments collected during a year for expenditure on approved research projects designed to advance the cost effectiveness, competitiveness, efficiency, pest and disease control, and other management aspects of beekeeping, honey production, and honey bees.

        `(B) CARRYOVER- If all funds reserved under subparagraph (A) are not allocated to approved research projects in a year, any reserved funds remaining unallocated shall be carried forward for allocation and expenditure under subparagraph (A) in subsequent years.'.

      (5) FALSE OR UNWARRANTED CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS- Section 7(g) of the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 4606(g)) is amended by striking `with assessments collected' and inserting `by the Honey Board'.

      (6) INFLUENCING GOVERNMENTAL POLICY OR ACTION- Section 7(h) of the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 4606(h)) is amended by striking `through assessments authorized by' and inserting `by the Honey Board under'.

    (g) PERMISSIVE TERMS AND PROVISIONS- Section 8 of the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 4607) is amended--

      (1) by inserting `(a) IN GENERAL- ' before `On'; and

      (2) by adding at the end the following:

      `(8) If approved in a referendum conducted under this Act, providing authority for the development of programs and related rules and regulations that will, with the approval of the Secretary, establish minimum purity standards for honey and honey products that are designed to maintain a positive and wholesome marketing image for honey and honey products.

    `(b) INSPECTION AND MONITORING SYSTEM-

      `(1) INSPECTION- Any program, rule, or regulation under subsection (a)(8) may provide for the inspection, by the Secretary, of honey and honey products being sold for domestic consumption in, or for export from, the United States.

      `(2) MONITORING SYSTEM- The Honey Board may develop and recommend to the Secretary a system for monitoring the purity of honey and honey products being sold for domestic consumption in, or for export from, the United States, including a system for identifying adulterated honey.

      `(3) COORDINATION WITH OTHER FEDERAL AGENCIES- The Secretary may coordinate, to the maximum extent practicable, with the head of any other Federal agency that has authority to ensure compliance with labeling or other requirements relating to the purity of honey and honey products concerning an enforcement action against any person that does not comply with a rule or regulation issued by any other Federal agency concerning the labeling or purity requirements of honey and honey products.

      `(4) AUTHORITY TO ISSUE REGULATIONS- The Secretary may issue such rules and regulations as are necessary to carry out this subsection.

    `(c) VOLUNTARY QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM-

      `(1) IN GENERAL- In addition to or independent of any program, rule, or regulation under subsection (b), the Honey Board, with the approval of the Secretary, may establish and carry out a voluntary quality assurance program concerning purity standards for honey and honey products.

      `(2) COMPONENTS- The program may include--

        `(A) the establishment of an official Honey Board seal of approval to be displayed on honey and honey products of producers, handlers, and importers that participate in the voluntary program and are found to meet such standards of purity as are established under the program;

        `(B) actions to encourage producers, handlers, and importers to participate in the program;

        `(C) actions to encourage consumers to purchase honey and honey products bearing the official seal of approval; and

        `(D) periodic inspections by the Secretary, or other parties approved by the Secretary, of honey and honey products of producers, handlers, and importers that participate in the voluntary program.

      `(3) DISPLAY OF SEAL OF APPROVAL- To be eligible to display the official seal of approval established under paragraph (2)(A) on a honey or honey product, a producer, handler, or importer shall participate in the voluntary program under this subsection.

    `(d) AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY- Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, the Secretary shall have the authority to approve or disapprove the establishment of minimum purity standards, the inspection and monitoring system under subsection (b), and the voluntary quality assurance program under subsection (c).'.

    (h) COLLECTION OF ASSESSMENTS-

      (1) NEW ASSESSMENT- Section 9 of the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 4608) is amended--

        (A) by striking subsection (a) and inserting the following:

    `(a) HANDLERS- Except as otherwise provided in this section, a first handler of honey shall be responsible, at the time of first purchase--

      `(1) for the collection, and payment to the Honey Board, of the assessment payable by a producer under section 7(e)(2)(A) or, if approved in a referendum conducted under this Act, under section 7(e)(3)(A)(i); and

      `(2) if approved in a referendum conducted under this Act, for the payment to the Honey Board of an additional assessment payable by the handler under section 7(e)(3)(A)(ii).';

        (B) by striking subsection (c) and inserting the following:

    `(c) IMPORTERS- Except as otherwise provided in this section, at the time of entry of honey and honey products into the United States, an importer shall remit to the Honey Board through the United States Customs Service--

      `(1) the assessment on the imported honey and honey products required under section 7(e)(2)(B); or

      `(2) if approved in a referendum conducted under this Act, the assessment on the imported honey and honey products required under section 7(e)(3)(B), of which the amount payable under section 7(e)(3)(A)(ii) represents the assessment due from the handler to be paid by the importer on behalf of the handler.'; and

        (C) by striking subsection (e) and inserting the following:

    `(e) PRODUCER-PACKERS- Except as otherwise provided in this section, a producer-packer shall be responsible for the collection, and payment to the Honey Board, of--

      `(1) the assessment payable by the producer-packer under section 7(e)(2)(A) or, if approved in a referendum conducted under this Act, under section 7(e)(3)(A)(i) on honey produced by the producer-packer;

      `(2) at the time of first purchase, the assessment payable by a producer under section 7(e)(2)(A) or, if approved in a referendum conducted under this Act, under section 7(e)(3)(A)(i) on honey purchased by the producer-packer as a first handler; and

      `(3) if approved in a referendum conducted under this Act, an additional assessment payable by the producer-packer under section 7(e)(3)(A)(ii).'.

      (2) INSPECTION; BOOKS AND RECORDS- Section 9 of the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 4608) is amended by striking subsection (f) and inserting the following:

    `(f) INSPECTION; BOOKS AND RECORDS-

      `(1) IN GENERAL- To make available to the Secretary and the Honey Board such information and data as are necessary to carry out this Act (including an order or regulation issued under this Act), a handler, importer, producer, or producer-packer responsible for payment of an assessment under this Act, and a person receiving an exemption from an assessment under section 7(e)(4), shall--

        `(A) maintain and make available for inspection by the Secretary and the Honey Board such books and records as are required by the order and regulations issued under this Act; and

        `(B) file reports at the times, in the manner, and having the content prescribed by the order and regulations, which reports shall include the total number of bee colonies maintained, the quantity of honey produced, and the quantity of honey and honey products handled or imported.

      `(2) EMPLOYEE OR AGENT- To conduct an inspection or review a report of a handler, importer, producer, or producer-packer under paragraph (1), an individual shall be an employee or agent of the Department or the Honey Board, and shall not be a member or alternate member of the Honey Board.

      `(3) CONFIDENTIALITY- An employee or agent described in paragraph (2) shall be subject to the confidentiality requirements of subsection (g).'.

      (3) CONFIDENTIALITY OF INFORMATION; DISCLOSURE- Section 9 of the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 4608) is amended by striking subsection (g) and inserting the following:

    `(g) CONFIDENTIALITY OF INFORMATION; DISCLOSURE-

      `(1) IN GENERAL- All information obtained under subsection (f) shall be kept confidential by all officers, employees, and agents of the Department or of the Honey Board.

      `(2) DISCLOSURE- Information subject to paragraph (1) may be disclosed--

        `(A) only in a suit or administrative hearing brought at the request of the Secretary, or to which the Secretary or any officer of the United States is a party, that involves the order with respect to which the information was furnished or acquired; and

        `(B) only if the Secretary determines that the information is relevant to the suit or administrative hearing.

      `(3) EXCEPTIONS- Nothing in this subsection prohibits--

        `(A) the issuance of general statements based on the reports of a number of handlers subject to an order, if the statements do not identify the information furnished by any person; or

        `(B) the publication, by direction of the Secretary, of the name of any person that violates any order issued under this Act, together with a statement of the particular provisions of the order violated by the person.

      `(4) VIOLATION- Any person that knowingly violates this subsection, on conviction--

        `(A) shall be fined not more than $1,000, imprisoned not more than 1 year, or both; and

        `(B) if the person is an officer or employee of the Honey Board or the Department, shall be removed from office.'.

      (4) REFUNDS- Section 9 of the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 4608) is amended by striking subsection (h).

      (5) ADMINISTRATION AND REMITTANCE- Section 9 of the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 4608) (as amended by paragraph (4)) is amended by inserting after subsection (g) the following:

    `(h) ADMINISTRATION AND REMITTANCE- Administration and remittance of the assessments under this Act shall be conducted--

      `(1) in the manner prescribed in the order and regulations issued under this Act; and

      `(2) if approved in a referendum conducted under this Act, in a manner that ensures that all honey and honey products are assessed a total of, but not more than, $0.015 per pound, including any producer or importer assessment.'.

      (6) LIABILITY FOR ASSESSMENTS- Section 9(i) of the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 4608(i)) is amended--

        (A) by striking `(i) If' and inserting the following:

    `(i) LIABILITY FOR ASSESSMENTS-

      `(1) PRODUCERS- If'; and

        (B) by adding at the end the following:

      `(2) IMPORTERS- If the United States Customs Service fails to collect an assessment from an importer or an importer fails to pay an assessment at the time of entry of honey and honey products into the United States under this section, the importer shall be responsible for the remission of the assessment to the Honey Board.'.

    (i) PETITION AND REVIEW- Section 10 of the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 4609) is amended by striking subsection (a) and inserting the following:

    `(a) FILING OF PETITION; HEARING-

      `(1) IN GENERAL- Subject to paragraph (4), a person subject to an order may file a written petition with the Secretary--

        `(A) that states that the order, any provision of the order, or any obligation imposed in connection with the order is not in accordance with law; and

        `(B) that requests--

          `(i) a modification of the order, provision, or obligation; or

          `(ii) to be exempted from the order, provision, or obligation.

      `(2) HEARING- In accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary, the petitioner shall be given an opportunity for a hearing on the petition.

      `(3) RULING- After the hearing, the Secretary shall make a ruling on the petition that shall be final, if in accordance with law.

      `(4) STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS- A petition filed under this subsection that challenges an order, any provision of the order, or any obligation imposed in connection with the order, shall be filed not later than 2 years after the later of--

        `(A) the effective date of the order, provision, or obligation challenged in the petition; or

        `(B) the date on which the petitioner became subject to the order, provision, or obligation challenged in the petition.'.

    (j) ENFORCEMENT- Subsections (a) and (b) of section 11 of the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 4610) are amended by striking `plan' each place it appears and inserting `order'.

    (k) REQUIREMENTS OF REFERENDUM- Section 12 of the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 4611) is amended to read as follows:

`SEC. 12. REQUIREMENTS OF REFERENDUM.

    `(a) IN GENERAL- For the purpose of ascertaining whether issuance of an order is approved by producers, importers, and in the case of an order assessing handlers, handlers, the Secretary shall conduct a referendum among producers, importers, and, in the case of an order assessing handlers, handlers, not exempt under section 7(e)(4), that, during a representative period determined by the Secretary, have been engaged in the production, importation, or handling of honey or honey products.

    `(b) EFFECTIVENESS OF ORDER-

      `(1) IN GENERAL- No order issued under this Act shall be effective unless the Secretary determines that--

        `(A) the order is approved by a majority of the producers, importers, and if covered by the order, handlers, voting in the referendum; and

        `(B) the producers, importers, and handlers comprising the majority produced, imported, and handled not less than 50 percent of the quantity of the honey and honey products produced, imported, and handled during the representative period by the persons voting in the referendum.

      `(2) AMENDMENTS TO ORDERS- The Secretary may amend an order in accordance with the administrative procedures specified in sections 5 and 6, except that the Secretary may not amend a provision of an order that implements a provision of this Act that specifically provides for approval in a referendum without the approval provided for in this section.

    `(c) PRODUCER-PACKERS AND IMPORTERS-

      `(1) IN GENERAL- Each producer-packer and each importer shall have 1 vote as a handler as well as 1 vote as a producer or importer (unless exempt under section 7(e)(4)) in all referenda concerning orders assessing handlers to the extent that the individual producer-packer or importer owes assessments as a handler.

      `(2) ATTRIBUTION OF QUANTITY OF HONEY- For the purpose of subsection (b)(1)(B)--

        `(A) the quantity of honey or honey products on which the qualifying producer-packer or importer owes assessments as a handler shall be attributed to the person's vote as a handler under paragraph (1); and

        `(B) the quantity of honey or honey products on which the producer-packer or importer owes an assessment as a producer or importer shall be attributed to the person's vote as a producer or importer.

    `(d) CONFIDENTIALITY- The ballots and other information or reports that reveal, or tend to reveal, the identity or vote of any producer, importer, or handler of honey or honey products shall be held strictly confidential and shall not be disclosed.'.

    (l) TERMINATION OR SUSPENSION- Section 13 of the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act (7 U.S.C. 4612) is amended to read as follows:

`SEC. 13. TERMINATION OR SUSPENSION.

    `(a) DEFINITION OF PERSON- In this section, the term `person' means a producer, importer, or handler.

    `(b) AUTHORITY OF SECRETARY- If the Secretary finds that an order issued under this Act, or any provision of the order, obstructs or does not tend to effectuate the purposes of this Act, the Secretary shall terminate or suspend the operation of the order or provision.

    `(c) PERIODIC REFERENDA- Except as provided in subsection (d)(3) and section 14(g), on the date that is 5 years after the date on which the Secretary issues an order authorizing the collection of assessments on honey or honey products under this Act, and every 5 years thereafter, the Secretary shall conduct a referendum to determine if the persons subject to assessment under the order approve continuation of the order in accordance with section 12.

    `(d) REFERENDA ON REQUEST-

      `(1) IN GENERAL- On the request of the Honey Board or the petition of at least 10 percent of the total number of persons subject to assessment under the order, the Secretary shall conduct a referendum to determine if the persons subject to assessment under the order approve continuation of the order in accordance with section 12.

      `(2) LIMITATION- Referenda conducted under paragraph (1) may not be held more than once every 2 years.

      `(3) EFFECT ON PERIODIC REFERENDA- If a referendum is conducted under this subsection and the Secretary determines that continuation of the order is approved under section 12, any referendum otherwise required to be conducted under subsection (c) shall not be held before the date that is 5 years after the date of the referendum conducted under this subsection.

    `(e) TIMING AND REQUIREMENTS FOR TERMINATION OR SUSPENSION-

      `(1) IN GENERAL- The Secretary shall terminate or suspend an order at the end of the marketing year during which a referendum is conducted under subsection (c) or (d) if the Secretary determines that continuation of an order is not approved under section 12.

      `(2) SUBSEQUENT REFERENDUM- If the Secretary terminates or suspends an order that assesses the handling of honey and honey products under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall, not later than 90 days after submission of a proposed order by an interested party--

        `(A) propose another order to establish a research, promotion, and consumer information program; and

        `(B) conduct a referendum on the order among persons that would be subject to assessment under the order.

      `(3) EFFECTIVENESS OF ORDER- Section 12 shall apply in determining the effectiveness of the subsequent amended order under paragraph (2).'.

    (m) IMPLEMENTATION OF AMENDMENTS- The Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act is amended by inserting after section 13 (7 U.S.C. 4612) the following:

`SEC. 14. IMPLEMENTATION OF AMENDMENTS MADE BY AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND EDUCATION REFORM ACT OF 1998.

    `(a) ISSUANCE OF AMENDED ORDER- To implement the amendments made to this Act by section 605 of the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998 (other than subsection (m) of that section), the Secretary shall issue an amended order under section 4 that reflects those amendments.

    `(b) PROPOSAL OF AMENDED ORDER- Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this section, the Secretary shall publish a proposed order under section 4 that reflects the amendments made by section 605 of the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998. The Secretary shall provide notice and an opportunity for public comment on the proposed order in accordance with section 5.

    `(c) ISSUANCE OF AMENDED ORDER- Not later than 240 days after publication of the proposed order, the Secretary shall issue an order under section 6, taking into consideration the comments received and including in the order such provisions as are necessary to ensure that the order conforms with the amendments made by section 605 of the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998.

    `(d) REFERENDUM ON AMENDED ORDER-

      `(1) REQUIREMENT-

        `(A) IN GENERAL- On issuance of an order under section 6 reflecting the amendments made by section 605 of the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998, the Secretary shall conduct a referendum under this section for the sole purpose of determining whether the order as amended shall become effective.

        `(B) INDIVIDUAL PROVISIONS- No individual provision of the amended order shall be subject to a separate vote under the referendum.

      `(2) ELIGIBLE VOTERS- The Secretary shall conduct the referendum among persons subject to assessment under the order that have been producers, producer-packers, importers, or handlers during the 2-calendar-year period that precedes the referendum, which period shall be considered to be the representative period.

      `(3) DETERMINATION OF QUANTITY-

        `(A) IN GENERAL- Producer-packers, importers, and handlers shall be allowed to vote as if--

          `(i) the amended order had been in place during the representative period described in paragraph (2); and

          `(ii) they had owed the increased assessments provided by the amended order.

        `(B) VOTES AND ATTRIBUTED QUANTITY FOR PRODUCER-PACKERS AND IMPORTERS- The votes and the quantity of honey and honey products attributed to the votes of producer-packers and importers shall be determined in accordance with section 12.

        `(C) ATTRIBUTED QUANTITY FOR HANDLERS- The quantity of honey and honey products attributed to the vote of a handler shall be the quantity handled in the representative period described in paragraph (2) for which the handler would have owed assessments had the amended order been in effect.

      `(4) EFFECTIVENESS OF ORDER- The amended order shall become effective only if the Secretary determines that the amended order is effective in accordance with section 12.

    `(e) CONTINUATION OF EXISTING ORDER IF AMENDED ORDER IS REJECTED- If adoption of the amended order is not approved--

      `(1) the order issued under section 4 that is in effect on the date of enactment of this section shall continue in full force and effect; and

      `(2) the Secretary may amend the order to ensure the conformity of the order with this Act (as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of this section).

    `(f) EFFECT OF REJECTION ON SUBSEQUENT ORDERS-

      `(1) IN GENERAL- Subject to paragraph (2), if adoption of the amended order is not approved in the referendum required under subsection (d), the Secretary may issue an amended order that implements some or all of the amendments made to this Act by section 605 of the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998, or makes other changes to an existing order, in accordance with the administrative procedures specified in sections 5 and 6.

      `(2) APPROVAL- An amendment to an order that implements a provision that is subject to a referendum shall be approved in accordance with section 12 before becoming effective.

    `(g) EFFECT ON PERIODIC REFERENDA- If the amended order becomes effective, any referendum otherwise required to be conducted under section 13(c) shall not be held before the date that is 5 years after the date of the referendum conducted under this section.'.

SEC. 606. TECHNICAL CORRECTIONS.

    (a) SUPPLEMENTAL AND ALTERNATIVE CROPS RESEARCH- Effective as of April 6, 1996, section 819(b)(5) of the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-127; 110 Stat. 1167) is amended by striking `paragraph (3)' and inserting `subsection (c)(3)'.

    (b) JOINT COUNCIL ON FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES- Section 1413(b) of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3128(b)) is amended by striking `Joint Council, the Advisory Board,' and inserting `Advisory Board'.

    (c) ADVISORY BOARD-

      (1) SUPPORT FOR ADVISORY BOARD- Section 1412 of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3127) is amended--

        (A) in subsections (a) and (b), by striking `their duties' each place it appears and inserting `its duties'; and

        (B) in subsection (c), by striking `their recommendations' and inserting `its recommendations'.

      (2) GENERAL PROVISIONS- Section 1413(a) of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3128(a)) is amended by striking `their powers' and inserting `its duties'.

    (d) ANIMAL HEALTH AND DISEASE RESEARCH- The National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 is amended--

      (1) in section 1430 (7 U.S.C. 3192)--

        (A) in paragraph (3), by adding `and' at the end;

        (B) by striking paragraph (4); and

        (C) by redesignating paragraph (5) as paragraph (4);

      (2) in section 1433(b)(3) (7 U.S.C. 3195(b)(3)), by striking `with the advice, when available, of the Board';

      (3) in section 1434(c) (7 U.S.C. 3196(c))--

        (A) in the second sentence, by striking `and the Board'; and

        (B) in the fourth sentence, by striking `, the Advisory Board, and the Board' and inserting `and the Advisory Board'; and

      (4) in the first sentence of section 1437 (7 U.S.C. 3199), by striking `with the advice, when available, of the Board'.

    (e) RANGELAND RESEARCH- The second sentence of section 1483(b) of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3336(b)) is amended by striking the last sentence.

    (f) PLANT AND ANIMAL PEST AND DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAM- Section 1629(g) of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 (7 U.S.C. 5832(g)) is amended by striking `section 1650,'.

    (g) GRANTS TO UPGRADE 1890 INSTITUTIONS EXTENSION FACILITIES- Effective as of April 6, 1996, section 873 of the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-127; 110 Stat. 1175) is amended by striking `1981' and inserting `1985'.

    (h) COMPETITIVE AND SPECIAL GRANTS- The Competitive, Special, and Facilities Research Grant Act (7 U.S.C. 450i) is amended--

      (1) in subsection (b)(1), by striking `Joint Council on Food and Agricultural Sciences and the National Agricultural Research and Extension Users Advisory Board' and inserting `National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board (as established under section 1408 of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3123))'; and

      (2) by striking subsection (l).

Subtitle B--New Authorities

SEC. 611. NUTRIENT COMPOSITION DATA.

    (a) IN GENERAL- The Secretary of Agriculture shall update, on a periodic basis, nutrient composition data.

    (b) REPORT- Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report that describes--

      (1) the method the Secretary will use to update nutrient composition data, including the quality assurance criteria that will be used and the method for generating the data; and

      (2) the timing for updating the data.

SEC. 612. NATIONAL SWINE RESEARCH CENTER.

    Subject to the availability of appropriations to carry out this section, or through a reprogramming of funds provided for swine research to carry out this section pursuant to established procedures, during the period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act and ending December 31, 1998, the Secretary of Agriculture, acting through the Agricultural Research Service, may accept as a gift, and administer, the National Swine Research Center located in Ames, Iowa.

SEC. 613. ROLE OF SECRETARY REGARDING FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES RESEARCH AND EXTENSION.

    The Secretary of Agriculture shall be the principal official in the executive branch responsible for coordinating all Federal research and extension activities related to food and agricultural sciences.

SEC. 614. OFFICE OF PEST MANAGEMENT POLICY.

    (a) PURPOSE- The purpose of this section is to establish an Office of Pest Management Policy to provide for the effective coordination of agricultural policies and activities within the Department of Agriculture related to pesticides and of the development and use of pest management tools, while taking into account the effects of regulatory actions of other government agencies.

    (b) ESTABLISHMENT OF OFFICE; PRINCIPAL RESPONSIBILITIES- The Secretary of Agriculture shall establish in the Department an Office of Pest Management Policy, which shall be responsible for--

      (1) the development and coordination of Department policy on pest management and pesticides;

      (2) the coordination of activities and services of the Department, including research, extension, and education activities, regarding the development, availability, and use of economically and environmentally sound pest management tools and practices;

      (3) assisting other agencies of the Department in fulfilling their responsibilities related to pest management or pesticides under the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-170; 110 Stat. 1489), the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.), the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), and other applicable laws; and

      (4) performing such other functions as may be required by law or prescribed by the Secretary.

    (c) INTERAGENCY COORDINATION- In support of its responsibilities under subsection (b), the Office of Pest Management Policy shall provide leadership to ensure coordination of interagency activities with the Environmental Protection Agency, the Food and Drug Administration, and other Federal and State agencies.

    (d) OUTREACH- The Office of Pest Management Policy shall consult with agricultural producers that may be affected by pest management or pesticide-related activities or actions of the Department or other agencies as necessary in carrying out the Office's responsibilities under this section.

    (e) DIRECTOR- The Office of Pest Management Policy shall be under the direction of a Director appointed by the Secretary, who shall report directly to the Secretary or a designee of the Secretary.

    (f) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS- There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section for each of fiscal years 1999 through 2002.

SEC. 615. FOOD SAFETY RESEARCH INFORMATION OFFICE AND NATIONAL CONFERENCE.

    (a) FOOD SAFETY RESEARCH INFORMATION OFFICE-

      (1) ESTABLISHMENT- The Secretary of Agriculture shall establish a Food Safety Research Information Office at the National Agricultural Library.

      (2) PURPOSE- The Office shall provide to the research community and the general public information on publicly funded, and to the maximum extent practicable, privately funded food safety research initiatives for the purpose of--

        (A) preventing unintended duplication of food safety research; and

        (B) assisting the executive and legislative branches of the Federal Government and private research entities to assess food safety research needs and priorities.

      (3) COOPERATION- The Office shall carry out this subsection in cooperation with the National Institutes of Health, the Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, public institutions, and, on a voluntary basis, private research entities.

    (b) NATIONAL CONFERENCE; ANNUAL WORKSHOPS- Not later than 120 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall sponsor a conference to be known as the `National Conference on Food Safety Research', for the purpose of beginning the task of prioritization of food safety research. The Secretary shall sponsor annual workshops in each of the subsequent 4 years after the conference so that priorities can be updated or adjusted to reflect changing food safety concerns.

    (c) FOOD SAFETY REPORT- With regard to the study and report to be prepared by the National Academy of Sciences on the scientific and organizational needs for an effective food safety system, the study shall include recommendations to ensure that the food safety inspection system, within the resources traditionally available to existing food safety agencies, protects the public health.

SEC. 616. SAFE FOOD HANDLING EDUCATION.

    The Secretary of Agriculture shall continue to develop a national program of safe food handling education for adults and young people to reduce the risk of food-borne illness. The national program shall be suitable for adoption and implementation through State cooperative extension services and school-based education programs.

SEC. 617. REIMBURSEMENT OF EXPENSES INCURRED UNDER SHEEP PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ACT OF 1994.

    Using funds available to the Agricultural Marketing Service, the Service may reimburse the American Sheep Industry Association for expenses incurred by the American Sheep Industry Association between February 6, 1996, and May 17, 1996, in preparation for the implementation of a sheep and wool promotion, research, education, and information order under the Sheep Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 7101 et seq.).

SEC. 618. DESIGNATION OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT TEAM WITHIN DEPARTMENT.

    (a) DESIGNATION OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT TEAM- The Secretary of Agriculture shall designate a Crisis Management Team within the Department of Agriculture, which shall be--

      (1) composed of senior departmental personnel with strong subject matter expertise selected from each relevant agency of the Department; and

      (2) headed by a team leader with management and communications skills.

    (b) DUTIES OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT TEAM- The Crisis Management Team shall be responsible for the following:

      (1) Developing a Department-wide crisis management plan, taking into account similar plans developed by other government agencies and other large organizations, and developing written procedures for the implementation of the crisis management plan.

      (2) Conducting periodic reviews and revisions of the crisis management plan and procedures developed under paragraph (1).

      (3) Ensuring compliance with crisis management procedures by personnel of the Department and ensuring that appropriate Department personnel are familiar with the crisis management plan and procedures and are encouraged to bring information regarding crises or potential crises to the attention of members of the Crisis Management Team.

      (4) Coordinating the Department's information gathering and dissemination activities concerning issues managed by the Crisis Management Team.

      (5) Ensuring that Department spokespersons convey accurate, timely, and scientifically sound information regarding crises or potential crises that can be easily understood by the general public.

      (6) Cooperating with, and coordinating among, other Federal agencies, States, local governments, industry, and public interest groups, Department activities regarding a crisis.

    (c) ROLE IN PRIORITIZING CERTAIN RESEARCH- The Crisis Management Team shall cooperate with the Advisory Board in the prioritization of agricultural research conducted or funded by the Department regarding animal health, natural disasters, food safety, and other agricultural issues.

    (d) COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS- The Secretary shall seek to enter into cooperative agreements with other Federal departments and agencies that have related programs or activities to help ensure consistent, accurate, and coordinated dissemination of information throughout the executive branch in the event of a crisis, such as, in the case of a threat to human health from food-borne pathogens, developing a rapid and coordinated response among the Department, the Centers for Disease Control, and the Food and Drug Administration.

SEC. 619. DESIGNATION OF KIKA DE LA GARZA SUBTROPICAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER, WESLACO, TEXAS.

    (a) DESIGNATION- The Federal facilities located at 2413 East Highway 83, and 2301 South International Boulevard, in Weslaco, Texas, and known as the `Subtropical Agricultural Research Center', shall be known and designated as the `Kika de la Garza Subtropical Agricultural Research Center'.

    (b) REFERENCES- Any reference in a law, map, regulation, document, paper, or other record of the United States to the Federal facilities referred to in subsection (a) shall be deemed to be a reference to the `Kika de la Garza Subtropical Agricultural Research Center'.

Subtitle C--Studies

SEC. 631. EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND EDUCATION PROGRAMS.

    (a) EVALUATION- The Secretary of Agriculture shall conduct a performance evaluation to determine whether federally funded agricultural research, extension, and education programs result in public goods that have national or multistate significance.

    (b) CONTRACT- The Secretary shall enter into a contract with 1 or more entities with expertise in research assessment and performance evaluation to provide input and recommendations to the Secretary with respect to federally funded agricultural research, extension, and education programs.

    (c) GUIDELINES FOR PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT- The contractor selected under subsection (b) shall develop and propose to the Secretary practical guidelines for measuring performance of federally funded agricultural research, extension, and education programs. The guidelines shall be consistent with the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (Public Law 103-62) and amendments made by that Act.

SEC. 632. STUDY OF FEDERALLY FUNDED AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND EDUCATION.

    (a) STUDY- Not later than January 1, 1999, the Secretary of Agriculture shall request the National Academy of Sciences to conduct a study of the role and mission of federally funded agricultural research, extension, and education.

    (b) REQUIREMENTS- The study shall--

      (1) evaluate the strength of science conducted by the Agricultural Research Service and the relevance of the science to national priorities;

      (2) examine how the work of the Agricultural Research Service relates to the capacity of the agricultural research, extension, and education system of the United States;

      (3) examine the appropriateness of the formulas for the allocation of funds under the Smith-Lever Act (7 U.S.C. 341 et seq.) and the Hatch Act of 1887 (7 U.S.C. 361a et seq.) with respect to current conditions of the agricultural economy and other factors of the various regions and States of the United States and develop recommendations to revise the formulas to more accurately reflect the current conditions; and

      (4) examine the system of competitive grants for agricultural research, extension, and education.

    (c) REPORTS- The Secretary shall prepare and submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate--

      (1) not later than 18 months after the commencement of the study, a report that describes the results of the study as it relates to paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (b), including any appropriate recommendations; and

      (2) not later than 3 years after the commencement of the study, a report that describes the results of the study as it relates to paragraphs (3) and (4) of subsection (b), including the recommendations developed under paragraph (3) of subsection (b) and other appropriate recommendations.

Subtitle D--Senses of Congress

SEC. 641. SENSE OF CONGRESS REGARDING AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE EMPHASIS ON FIELD RESEARCH REGARDING METHYL BROMIDE ALTERNATIVES.

    It is the sense of Congress that, of the Agricultural Research Service funds made available for a fiscal year for research regarding the development for agricultural use of alternatives to methyl bromide, the Secretary of Agriculture should use a substantial portion of the funds for research to be conducted in real field conditions, especially pre-planting and post-harvest conditions, so as to expedite the development and commercial use of methyl bromide alternatives.

SEC. 642. SENSE OF CONGRESS REGARDING IMPORTANCE OF SCHOOL-BASED AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    It is the sense of Congress that the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Education should collaborate and cooperate in providing both instructional and technical support for school-based agricultural education.

Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Vice President of the United States and

President of the Senate.

END

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