AILA Doc No. 98042140 | Dated April 21, 1998
April 21, 1998
A History of the "Green Card"
What is known today as a "Green Card" has come in a variety of different formats and colors during its history. We still refer to all versions as Green Cards for the same reason dismissal notices are called "pink slips." Yet the card’s purpose of indicating a lawful permanent resident’s authorization to live and work in the United States has remained constant.
Alien Registration Act of 1940
As a national defense measure, the Alien Registration Act of 1940 required for the first time in the nation’s history that all aliens (non-U.S. citizens) within the United States register with the federal government at post offices. Their registration forms were forwarded to the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) for processing, after which a receipt card (Form AR-3) was mailed to each registrant as proof of compliance with the law. The law did not discriminate between legal and illegal alien residents. All aliens had to register, and all received AR-3s.
Post World War II -- The First Green Card
As World War II ended and large-scale immigration to the United States resumed, alien registration ceased to take place at post offices and became part of regular immigration procedures at ports of entry. INS, based on the alien’s admission status, issued different documents to serve as Alien Registration Receipt Cards. For example, visitors received an I-94c, temporary foreign laborers received an I-100a, and legal permanent residents (LPRs) received an I-151. The small, green Form I-151 had immediate value in identifying its holder as an alien who was entitled to live and work indefinitely in the United States.
The Internal Security Act of 1950 -- The Value of the Green Card Increases
Following passage of the Internal Security Act of 1950, new regulations issued by INS made the Alien Registration Receipt Card, Form I-151, even more valuable. Effective April 17, 1951, aliens holding AR-3 cards could replace them with a new Form I-151 (Green Card). However, only those with legal status could replace their AR-3. Aliens who could not prove their legal admission into the United States could not qualify for LPR status and were subject to prosecution for violating U.S. immigration laws.
As a result, the Form I-151 card represented security to its holder. It indicated the right to live and work in the United States permanently and instantly communicated that right to law enforcement officials. Because of the card’s cumbersome official title - Alien Registration Receipt Card - aliens, immigration attorneys, and enforcement officers came to refer to it by its color, calling it the "Green Card."
Combating Document Fraud - The Green Card Changes Color
In the early 1950s, the status of being a Green Card holder became so desirable that counterfeit Form I-151s became a serious problem. To combat document fraud, the INS issued 17 different re-designs of the Form I-151 between 1952 and its complete revision in 1977.
In 1964, the color of the Green Card was changed to pale blue. After 1964, it became a dark blue. Regardless of color, the Form I-151 still carried with it the benefits indicated by the term Green Card, and those who wanted, obtained, issued or inspected it continued to refer to it by that name.
During the mid-1970s, INS studied methods to produce a more counterfeit- resistant Green Card. The study resulted in centralized card production at the Immigration Card Facility in Texas. This created standardization and accountability lacking with local card production. In addition, new materials and technologies were introduced to create a new machine-verifiable Green Card. The new Green Card, first issued in 1977, also had a new form number, I-551.
The 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA)
In 1986, the Immigration Reform and Control Act, for the first time, gave employers legal incentives for verifying employment documents. However, the many and varied versions of the Green Card made this task daunting. To simplify the verification process for employers, as well as to further reduce the counterfeiting risk, INS once again created a new card version in 1989.
To further combat document fraud, effective March 20, 1996, the old Form I-151 Green Cards issued prior to 1979, became obsolete. The Form I-551 Alien Registration Receipt Card became the only valid Green Card.
Despite these efforts, the anti-fraud technology utilized for the 1989 card version was quickly matched by counterfeiting technology, forcing INS to develop a more secure "Green Card."
Integrated Card Production System -- The Green Card Becomes Green Again
To thwart counterfeiters, INS switched to the high-tech Integrated Card Production System (ICPS). Today’s ICPS cards mark a significant achievement in the history of Green Card production. Although the card form number remains the same, Form I-551, the new card now contains many state-of-the-art security features that can be expanded, as necessary, to keep one step ahead of counterfeiters. The card also features a name change from "Alien Registration Receipt Card" to "Permanent Resident Card."
One of the most secure documents in the federal government, the new Green Card can easily incorporate future technology to maintain its resistance to counterfeiting. As older versions of the Green Cards are taken out of circulation as they expire, the new card will gradually become the only valid Form I-551 in circulation.
- INS -
Prepared by the Office of Public Affairs (202) 514-2648
Cite as AILA InfoNet Doc. No. 98042140.